John O. Holloszy and Jeffrey S. Greiwe
Emma L. Sweeney, Daniel J. Peart, Irene Kyza, Thomas Harkes, Jason G. Ellis, and Ian H. Walshe
on glucose metabolism or sleep; alteration of sleep, dietary, or physical activity patterns in the previous 3 months; a history of drug or alcohol abuse or eating disorders; following a specific diet which may influence the results, such as intermittent fasting; a habitual bedtime before 2200 hr or
Trent J. Herda, Philip M. Gallagher, Jonathan D. Miller, Matthew P. Bubak, and Mandy E. Parra
obese ( 34 ), and it is a worldwide health concern ( 37 ). Adipose infiltration in skeletal muscles of the lower extremity is linked to glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in adults ( 5 , 19 – 21 ). In the realm of insulin resistance in children, skeletal muscle is often overlooked despite the
Loretta DiPietro, Catherine W. Yeckel, and James Dziura
Few studies have compared long-term moderate-intensity aerobic versus light-resistance training on serial improvements in glucose tolerance in older people.
Healthy, inactive older (74 ± 5 [SD] years) women (N = 20) were randomized into either a high-volume, moderate-intensity aerobic (ATM, n = 12) or a lower-intensity resistance training (RTL, n = 8) group. Both groups exercised under supervision 4 times per week for 45- to 60-minute sessions over 9 months. Measurements of plasma glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA) responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 9 months 48 hours after the last exercise session.
We observed significant improvements in 2-hour glucose concentrations at 3, 6, and 9 months among women in the RTL (152 ± 42 vs 134 ± 33 vs 134 ± 24 vs 130 ± 27 mg · dL−1; P < .05), but not the ATM (151 ± 25 vs 156 ± 37 vs 152 ± 40 vs 155 ± 39 mg · dL−1) group. These improvements were accompanied by an 18% (P < .07) decrease in basal FFA concentrations in the RTL group, whereas basal and 30-minute FFA concentrations increased (P < .05) after training in the ATM group.
These findings suggest that the net physiological benefits of exercise might have been blunted in the ATM group, owing to higher circulating levels of FFA, which might have temporarily interfered with insulin action.
Yasuo Sengoku, Kazuteru Nakamura, Hitomi Ogata, Yoshiharu Nabekura, Shoichiro Nagasaka, and Kumpei Tokuyama
The current case study intended to measure blood glucose fluctuation in 2 marathon runners during a 100-km race using a continuous glucose-monitoring system (CGMS) and investigate the relationship between glucose profile and change in running speed. Two experienced ultramarathon runners participated in this study. A CGMS glucose sensor was inserted into the subcutaneous abdominal tissue at 35 h before the 100-km race, and the glucose profile was monitored continuously until the end of the race. Race pace and energy intake during the race were recorded. Participants finished the race in 6h:51min:17s (runner A) and 8h:56min:04s (runner B), and the race-pace decrement ratios were 17.6% for runner A and 27.2% for runner B. The average relative intensity throughout the 100-km race was 89.9% ± 5.8% lactate threshold (LT) in runner A and 78.4% ± 8.6% LT in runner B. The total amount of carbohydrate intake during the race was 249 g and 366 g in runners A and B, respectively. Despite lower carbohydrate intake, runner A maintained a normal glucose level throughout the race, while runner B rapidly decreased blood glucose and became hypoglycemic after the 80-km point. These results suggest that elite ultramarathon runners may have the ability to prevent a large decrement in blood glucose level regardless of the amount of energy intake during the race to maintain higher relative running intensity.
Gareth J. Smith, Edward C. Rhodes, and Robert H. Langill
The purpose of this study was to determine if pre-exercise glucose ingestion would improve distance swimming performance. Additionally, pre-exercise glucose was provided at 2 different feeding intervals to investigate the affects of the timing of administration. Ten male triathletes (
Margareta I. Hellgren, Charlotte A. Larsson, Bledar Daka, Max Petzold, Per-Anders Jansson, and Ulf Lindblad
We aimed to explore the association between self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in men and women with and without impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
In a cross-sectional study, a random sample (n = 2,816) was examined with an oral glucose tolerance test, CRP and information about LTPA. Those with IGT or normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and CRP value ≤10 mg/L were selected (n = 2,367) for the study.
An inverse association between LTPA and CRP concentrations was observed in the population (P < .001), though, only in men with IGT (P = .023) and in women with NGT. Men with IGT, reporting slight physical activity up to 4 hours a week presented significantly higher CRP concentrations than normoglycemic men (∆0.6 mg/L, P = .004). However, this difference could not be found in men with IGT reporting more intense physical activity (∆0.01 mg/L, P = .944).
Physical inactivity seems to have greater inflammatory consequences for men (vs. women) with IGT. More importantly, although 4 hours of physical activity per week is more than the usual minimum recommendation, an even greater intensity of LTPA appears to be required to limit subclinical inflammation in men with IGT.
Stephen R. Stannard, Martin W. Thompson, and Janette C. Brand Miller
Consumption of low glycemic index (GI) foods before submaximal endurance exercise may be beneficial to performance. To test whether this may also be true for high intensity exercise. 10 trained cyclists began an incremental exercise test to exhaustion 65 min after consuming equal carbohydrate portions of glucose (HGI), pasta (LGI), and a noncarbohydrate control (PL). Time to fatigue did not differ significantly (p = 0.05) between treatments. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower after LGI vs. HGI from 15 to 45 min of rest postprandial. During exercise, plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower after HGI vs. LGI from 200 W until exhaustion. Plasma lactate concentration following HGI was significantly higher than PL from 30 min of rest postprandial through to the end of the 200-W workload. Plasma lactate concentration following LGI was significantly lower than after HGI from 45 min of rest postprandial through to the end of the 100-W workload. At higher exercise intensities, there was no significant difference in plasma lactate levels between treatments. These findings suggest that a high GI carbohydrate meal (1 g/kg body wt) 65 min prior to exercise decreases plasma glucose and increases plasma lactate levels compared to a low GI meal, but not enough to be detrimental to incremental exercise performance.
Estelle V. Lambert, Julia H. Goedecke, Charl van Zyl, Kim Murphy, John A. Hawley, Steven C. Dennis, and Timothy D. Noakes
We examined the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD-CHO) versus a habitual diet, prior to carbohydrate (CHO)-loading on fuel metabolism and cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Five endurance-trained cyclists participated in two 14-day randomized cross-over trials during which subjects consumed either a HFD (>65% MJ from fat) or their habitual diet (CTL) (30 ± 5% MJ from fat) for 10 day, before ingesting a high-CHO diet (CHO-loading, CHO > 70% MJ) for 3 days. Trials consisted of a 150-min cycle at 70% of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak), followed immediately by a 20-km TT. One hour before each trial, cyclists ingested 400 ml of a 3.44% medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) solution, and during the trial, ingested 600 ml/hour of a 10% 14C-glucose + 3.44% MCT solution. The dietary treatments did not alter the subjects’ weight, body fat, or lipid profile. There were also no changes in circulating glucose, lactate, free fatty acid (FFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations during exercise. However, mean serum glycerol concentrations were significantly higher (p < .01) in the HFD-CHO trial. The HFD-CHO diet increased total fat oxidation and reduced total CHO oxidation but did not alter plasma glucose oxidation during exercise. By contrast, the estimated rates of muscle glycogen and lactate oxidation were lower after the HFD-CHO diet. The HFD-CHO treatment was also associated with improved TT times (29.5 ± 2.9 min vs. 30.9 ± 3.4 min for HFD-CHO and CTL-CHO, p < .05). High-fat feeding for 10 days prior to CHO-loading was associated with an increased reliance on fat, a decreased reliance on muscle glycogen, and improved time trial performance after prolonged exercise.
Meredith C. Peddie, Claire Cameron, Nancy Rehrer, and Tracy Perry
Interrupting sedentary time induces improvements in glucose metabolism; however, it is unclear how much activity is required to reduce the negative effects of prolonged sitting.
Sixty-six participants sat continuously for 9 hours except for required bathroom breaks. Participants were fed meal replacement beverages at 60, 240 and 420 min. Blood samples were obtained hourly for 9 hours, with additional samples collected 30 and 45 min after each feeding. Responses were calculated as incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride. Participants wore a triaxial accelerometer and a heart rate monitor. Energy expenditure was estimated using indirect calorimetry.
After controlling for age, sex and BMI, every 100 count increase in accelerometer derived total movement was associated with a 0.06 mmol·L-1·9 hours decrease in glucose iAUC (95% CI 0.004–0.1; P = .035), but not associated with changes in insulin or triglyceride iAUC. Every 1 bpm increase in mean heart rate was associated with a 0.76 mmol·L-1·9 hours increase in triglyceride iAUC (95% CI 0.13–1.38).
Accelerometer measured movement during periods of prolonged sitting can result in minor improvements in postprandial glucose metabolism, but not lipid metabolism.