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Timothy D. Heden, Ying Liu, Young-Min Park, Nathan C. Winn, and Jill A. Kanaley


This study assessed if walking at a self-selected pace could improve postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in obese adolescents consuming high-fructose (HF) or high-glucose (HG) diets.


Seven obese male and female adolescents (18 ± 1 yr) performed 4, 15-day trials in a random order, including 1) HF-diet (50 g fructose/d added to normal diet) while being sedentary, 2) HG-diet (50 g glucose/d) while sedentary, 3) HF-diet with additional walking, and 4) HG-diet with additional walking. On the 15th day of each trial, the participants performed mixed meal testing in the laboratory in which they consumed three liquid shakes (either HF or HG) and during the HF and HG sedentary trials, the participants took < 4000 steps while in the laboratory but during the walking trials took ≥ 13,000 steps during testing.


Walking did not alter postprandial glucose concentrations. Although walking reduced insulin secretion by 34% and 25% during the HF- and HG-diet, respectively (P < .05), total insulin concentrations were only significantly reduced (P > .05) with walking during the HF trial, possibly because walking enhanced insulin clearance to a greater extent during the HF-diet.


Walking reduces postprandial insulin secretion in obese adolescents consuming a high-fructose or high-glucose diet.

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Laís Monteiro Rodrigues Loureiro, Caio Eduardo Gonçalves Reis, and Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

involved in the process of glycogen synthesis. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an enzyme responsible for the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) to the cell membrane when activated by skeletal muscle contraction ( Mu et al., 2001 ; Stapleton et al., 1996 ). AMPK

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Rachel B. Parks, Hector F. Angus, Douglas S. King, and Rick L. Sharp

synergistic actions of insulin and muscle contractions stimulated GLUT4 translocation until counterregulatory hormones normalized blood glucose by ∼30 min into exercise ( Defronzo et al., 1981 ; Hargreaves et al., 1987 ). However, subsequent studies could not replicate the results, instead finding

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Edward A. Gray, Thomas A. Green, James A. Betts, and Javier T. Gonzalez

contributes to the maintenance of blood glucose availability during exercise, a lack of which is associated with the onset of fatigue ( Coyle & Coggan, 1984 ). In contrast to muscle glycogen, liver glycogen synthesis is potently increased by coingestion of the low-glycemic index carbohydrate, fructose, with

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Susan Sullivan Glenney, Derrick Paul Brockemer, Andy C. Ng, Michael A. Smolewski, Vladimir M. Smolgovskiy, and Adam S. Lepley

effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health. Traditional serum biomarkers, such as total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin, and triglyceride levels, have been used to study the effects of exercise interventions

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Amy-Lee M. Bowler, Jamie Whitfield, Lachlan Marshall, Vernon G. Coffey, Louise M. Burke, and Gregory R. Cox

blood glucose (BG) supply in comparison with the fuel needs of an exercise session ( Burke, Hawley, et al., 2018 ; Impey et al., 2018 ). Targets for CHO intake, to optimize performance and support health and well-being, in the everyday diet and during competition are a prominent feature of sports

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Javier T. Gonzalez and Andy J. King

specifically focuses on the theory and practice of employing isotopic tracers to study carbohydrate metabolism during exercise in humans. Tracers can be considered as “labels” which are used to track the trace of interest (e.g., ingested glucose). A common tracer method employs isotopes, which are elements

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Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Satomi Oshima, and Mitsuru Higuchi

football ( Guo et al., 2013 ; Murata et al., 2016 ; Selden et al., 2009 ) athletes, who often intentionally try to increase their body mass as a means of performance enhancement. Selden et al. ( 2009 ) reported that players from the National Football League have higher fasting glucose concentrations

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Athanasios Kabasakalis, Stefanos Nikolaidis, George Tsalis, and Vassilis Mougios

upregulate biochemical markers such as lactate, glucose, cortisol, reduced glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity, and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine. 11 Swimming SIT sets are considered relevant and effective in improving performance in competitive events ranging from 50 to 400 m, as they increase

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Whitney A. Welch, Scott J. Strath, Michael Brondino, Renee Walker, and Ann M. Swartz

health effects of sedentary behavior has been performed, research in adults has shown that breaks from sedentary behavior are beneficial for glucose regulation. 9 , 10 These proposed breaks are generally accomplished by introducing some type of LPA such as standing or slow walking; range in duration