We investigated the effect of long-term treatment (6 wk) with selenium and vitamin E, in combination with aerobic exercise training, on malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), and glutathione peroxi-dase (GPx) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The rats were assigned randomly to one of three treatment groups (n = 12 per group): 1) exercise group (EX), 2) selenium/vitamin E/exercise group (SVE), and 3) selenium/vitamin E group (SV). To estimate the acute effect of exercise, a 30-min endurance exercise was used. The MDA concentration was significantly lower in the SVE. The ox-LDL was significantly lower in the SVE and SV. The hepatic concentrations of selenium and vitamin E were significantly higher in the SVE. These results indicate that the increase in MDA is mildly attenuated in rats that were aerobically trained. Moreover, the joint administration of selenium and vitamin E with or without exercise training reduces the levels of ox-LDL.
Kamal Azizbeigi, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Maghsoud Peeri, Hamid Agha-alinejad and Stephen Stannard
This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of progressive resistance-training (PRT) on plasma oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in erythrocytes. Twenty male volunteers were randomly assigned to 2 groups: PRT and control. Blood samples were collected before and after 8 wk of PRT and analyzed for enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in erythrocytes, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde concentration (MDA, an index of lipid per oxidation in plasma). Resistance training commenced with 8 exercises on nonconsecutive days for 8 wk at 50% of estimated 1-repetition maximum (E1RM) and reached 80% E1RM by Week 8. The results showed that PRT significantly increased erythrocyte SOD activity (1,323 ± 212.52 vs. 1,449.9 ± 173.8 U/g Hb, p = .014). Plasma concentration of MDA also decreased (5.39 ± 1.7 vs. 3.67.4 ± 0.7 nmol/ml, p = .030), although TAC (1.42 ± 0.21 vs. 1.61 ± 0.19 mmol/L, p = .1530) and GPx (39.87 ± 11.5 vs. 48.18 ± 14.48 U/g Hb, p = .883) activity did not undergo any considerable changes. Based on these data, the authors conclude that an 8-wk program of PRT strengthens the defensive system of erythrocytes against free-radical damage and therefore can be applied as a useful approach to alleviate oxidative stress.
Manfred Lamprecht, Peter Hofmann, Joachim F. Greilberger and Guenther Schwaberger
To assess the effects of an encapsulated antioxidant concentrate (EAC) and exercise on lipid peroxidation (LIPOX) and the plasma antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (Pl-GPx).
Eight trained male cyclists (VO2max > 55 ml · kg−1 · min−1) participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover study and undertook 4 cycle-ergometer bouts: 2 moderate exercise bouts over 90 min at 45% of individual VO2max and 2 strenuous exercise bouts at 75% of individual VO2max for 30 min. The first 2 exercise tests—1 moderate and 1 strenuous—were conducted after 4 weeks wash-out and after 12 and 14 days of EAC (107 IU vitamin E, 450 mg vitamin C, 36 mg β-carotene, 100 μg selenium) or placebo treatment. After another 4 weeks wash-out, participants were given the opposite capsule treatment and repeated the 2 exercise tests. Physical exercise training was equal across the whole study period, and nutrition was standardized by a menu plan the week before the tests. Blood was collected before exercise, immediately postexercise, and 30 min and 60 min after each test. Plasma samples were analyzed for LIPOX marker malondialdehyde (MDA) and the antioxidant enzyme pl-GPx.
MDA concentrations were significantly increased after EAC supplementation at rest before exercise and after moderate exercise (p < .05). MDA concentrations showed no differences between treatments after strenuous exercise (p > .1). Pl-GPx concentrations decreased at all time points of measurement after EAC treatment (p < .05).
The EAC induced an increase of LIPOX as indicated by MDA and decreased pl-GPx concentrations pre- and postexercise.
David C. Nieman, Giuseppe Valacchi, Laurel M. Wentz, Francesca Ferrara, Alessandra Pecorelli, Brittany Woodby, Camila A. Sakaguchi and Andrew Simonson
cell (PBMC) mRNA expression for cyclooxygenease-2 (COX-2). This measure increased significantly postexercise (time effect, p < .001), but no significant interaction effect was measured ( p = .322). Figure 4 —Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) mRNA expression for glutathione peroxidase. This
Mohamed Romdhani, Nizar Souissi, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Tarak Driss, Karim Chamari and Omar Hammouda
and cellular damage. Free radicals production increases during the exercise because of the enhanced oxygen consumption and the activated phagocytic cells in the site of the damage. 26 Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are the first defense line against the exercise
Sang-Ho Lee, Steven D. Scott, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Jeong-Gi Lee and Song-Young Park
temperature. The incubated samples were stimulated by Ran-Cell total antioxidant control (Randox, Crumlin, United Kingdom) and then analyzed at 340 nm by plate reader. Plasma levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were acquired by GPx Assay Kit (Cayman Chemical). Samples were incubated for 20 minutes at 37°C
Antoni Sureda, Miguel D. Ferrer, Antonia Mestre, Josep A. Tur and Antoni Pons
The authors studied the effects of antioxidant diet supplementation with an almond-based beverage on neutrophil antioxidants, nitrite, and protein oxidative alterations after exercise. Fourteen trained male amateur runners were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive antioxidant supplementation (152 mg/d vitamin C and 50 mg/d vitamin E) or placebo using an almond-based beverage for 1 mo and participated in a half-marathon race. Blood samples were taken before and after the half-marathon and after 3 hr recovery. Supplementation significantly increased basal neutrophil vitamin C compared with placebo (p < .05). Exercise increased neutrophil vitamin E levels in the supplemented group and decreased vitamin C in both groups after recovery (p < .05). Neutrophil catalase and glutathione peroxidase gene expression and nitrite levels were significantly increased as result of exercise (p < .05). Nitrotyrosine and protein carbonyl derivates increased only in the placebo group after exercise (p < .05), and these values remained high at recovery. No significant differences were evidenced in caspase-3 activity and DNA damage. Antioxidant supplementation with vitamins C and E reduced the exercise-induced oxidation of proteins in neutrophils, without altering the antioxidant adaptive response, as evidenced by the increased catalase and glutathione peroxidase gene expression.
Andrew W. Subudhi, Scott L. Davis, Ronald W. Kipp and E. Wayne Askew
The goal of this field study was to assess antioxidant status and markers of oxidative damage in elite alpine ski racers during routine training. Subjects included 12 members of the U.S. Men’s Alpine Ski Team attending a 10-day summer training camp. Blood draws were collected at rest and after exercise: (a) prior to training, (b) following 2 days of dry land training, and (c) after 4 days of on-snow skiing. Seven measures of antioxidant status were determined using colorimetric and HPLC methods (Trolox “equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, total glutathione, cytosolic glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase). Oxidative stress was assessed using 2 markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides) and 2 markers of protein oxidation (carbonylated total proteins and carbonylated hemoglobin). The results of this study suggest that antioxidant status of elite alpine skiers may decline over a period of intense training. However, elevations in markers of oxidative stress were not evident.
Mohamed A. Bouzid, Omar Hammouda, Régis Matran, Sophie Robin and Claudine Fabre
This comparative study examined the effects of regular low intensity aerobic exercise on oxidative stress markers in older adults. The study was carried out on 15 sedentary subjects (age: 65.1 ± 3.5 years) versus 18 subjects performing fitness exercises (age: 65.8 ± 3.3 years). Before and after an incremental exercise test, oxidative stress markers were assessed. Superoxide dismutase was higher at rest and at the recovery for the physically active subjects compared with sedentary subjects (p < .05). At recovery, glutathione peroxidase and α -Tocopherol increased significantly above the resting values only in the active group (p < .05). Malondialdehyde had increased in both groups (p < .01), associated with a higher level in the sedentary group (p < .05) at the recovery. These data suggest that low intensity aerobic exercise may be useful to prevent the decline of antioxidants linked with aging.
Levent Cavas and Leman Tarhan
The relationship among the enzyme activities of cardiac markers, the antioxidant defense system, and erythrocyte membrane malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels related to vitamin-mineral supplementation in swim exercise was investigated. Swimmers aged 11–13 years were divided into 2 separate groups as control and vitamin-mineral supplemented. Swimmers participated in a monthly swimming program (4 times/wk) and swam approximately 2–2.5 km/d. Cardiac markers such as creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [GOT (AST)], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in post-training samples were found to be significantly (p < .05) higher than in pre-training samples. Except for GOT (AST), the activity increases in CK, CK-MB, and LDH in female and male supplemented groups were significantly (p < .05) lower than those of control groups during the 1-month period of swim training. Antioxidant enzyme activity increases in the male vitamin-mineral group were significantly (p < .05) higher when compared with the other groups. Post-training MDA levels were significantly (p < .001) higher than pre-training MDA levels in the control groups, whereas no significant (p > .05) differences were found between the vitamin-mineral supplemented groups. Vitamin-mineral supplementation was found to attenuate cardiac and muscle damage markers while also enhancing antioxidant levels and reducing membrane LPO levels in response to 1 month of swim training.