Adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) for nonceliac athletes (NCA) has become increasingly popular despite a paucity of supportive medical or ergogenic evidence. This study aimed to quantify the demographics of NCA and determine associated experiences, perceptions, and sources of information related to GFD. Athletes (n = 910, female = 528, no gender selected = 5) completed a 17-question online survey. Forty-one percent of NCA respondents, including 18-world and/or Olympic medalists, follow a GFD 50–100% of the time (GFD > 50): only 13% for treatment of reported medical conditions with 57% self-diagnosing their gluten sensitivity. The GFD > 50 group characteristics included predominantly endurance sport athletes (70.0%) at the recreationally competitive level (32.3%), between 31 and 40 years of age (29.1%). Those who follow a GFD > 50 reported experiencing, abdominal/gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms alone (16.7%) or in conjunction with two (30.7%) or three (35.7%) additional symptoms (e.g., fatigue) believed to be triggered by gluten. Eighty-four percent of GFD > 50 indicated symptom improvement with gluten-removal. Symptom-based and non-symptom-based self-diagnosed gluten-sensitivity (56.7%) was the primary reason for adopting a GFD. Leading sources of GFD information were online (28.7%), trainer/coach (26.2%) and other athletes (17.4%). Although 5–10% of the general population is estimated to benefit clinically from a GFD a higher prevalence of GFD adherence was found in NCA (41.2%). Prescription of a GFD among many athletes does not result from evidence-based practice suggesting that adoption of a GFD in the majority of cases was not based on medical rationale and may be driven by perception that gluten removal provides health benefits and an ergogenic edge in NCA.
Dana M. Lis, Trent Stellingwerff, Cecilia M. Shing, Kiran D.K. Ahuja, and James W. Fell
Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings, and D. Enette Larson-Meyer
A variety of special diets are adopted by track-and-field athletes for a multitude of reasons. Gluten-free (GFD), vegetarian, and fasting diets are among the more prevalent diets adopted for health, ethical, religious, and performance purposes. A low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides
Fiona Pelly and Susie Parker Simmons
environment and policy that determine food availability ( Symmank et al., 2017 ). We previously reported on an expert review of the food provision for the London 2012 Olympic Games and found that there was limited choice of lower energy, low fat, and gluten-free items to meet the needs of athletes, as well as
Katherine Elizabeth Black, Paula Skidmore, and Rachel Clare Brown
Food intolerance is becoming increasingly prevalent, and increasing numbers of athletes have celiac disease. This poses challenges as dietary recommendations for exercise are largely based on gluten-containing carbohydrate-rich foods. The K4 cycle race covers 384 km around the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. Lack of sleep, darkness, and temperature variations pose a number of nutritional challenges. Limited food choices present those with celiac disease with even greater challenges. This case study describes the intakes of one such athlete during training and competing in the K4. Nutritional intakes were obtained during training using weighed-food records and during the race via dietary recall and the weighing of foods pre- and postrace. As simple substitution of gluten-containing foods for gluten-free foods leads to increased energy intake, alternatives need to be considered. During the race, insufficient energy was consumed to meet the nutritional guidelines for endurance performance. This was probably due to the nature of the course, racing conditions, the consistency of gluten-free food, and, toward the end of the race, sensory-specific satiety.
Fiona Pelly, Nanna L. Meyer, Jeni Pearce, Sarah J. Burkhart, and Louise M. Burke
The aim of this study was to evaluate the food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) from the perspective of sports nutrition experts attending the event. Participants (n = 15) were asked to complete an online survey and rate on a Likert scale menu qualities, food safety, sustainability practices, nutrition labeling, and provision for cultural needs, dietary regimes and specific situations. Open-ended responses were incorporated to explore expert opinion and areas for improvement. Participants rated their overall experience of the food provision as 7.6 out of 10 (range 5 to 10), with the majority (n = 11) rating it greater than 7. The variety, accessibility, presentation, temperature, and freshness of menu items rated as average to good. A below average rating was received for recovery food and beverages, provision of food for traveling to other venues, taking suitable snacks out of the dining hall and provision of food at other venues. However, the variety and accessibility of choices for Ramadan, and provision of postcompetition food were rated highly. A number of comments were received about the lack of gluten free and lower energy/fat items. The inclusion of allergens on nutrition labeling was considered more important than nutrient content. While dietetic review of the menu in advance of the OG and PG is clearly a valuable process that has resulted in improvements in the food supply, there are still areas that need to be addressed that are currently not implemented during the event.
Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall, and Louise M. Burke
macronutrient content (e.g., juice for CHO, lean meat for protein, and/or cream/olive oil/butter for fat) were used to fine-tune energy and macronutrient intake at a meal. One participant’s meal and snack plan was adapted in consideration of a peanut allergy and gluten/wheat intolerance, while personal food
Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa
-FODMAP Foods and Fluids Consumed by the Case Runner (A) 6 Days Lead-In and (B) During the TransRockies Run Multistage Ultramarathon Time period Consumed (A) Breakfast Large bowl of gluten-free cornflakes with lactose-free milk and a banana Snacks Pop-Tarts, one low-FODMAP fruit, lactose-free milk, coffee
Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon, and Trent Stellingwerff
, monosaccharides, and polyols; gluten-free eating; and fasting. An evidence-based approach to any diet is recommended to minimize the risks associated with unnecessary dietary restriction, which may potentially do more harm than good. Gluten-free diets and low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides
Jeffrey A. Rothschild, Andrew E. Kilding, and Daniel J. Plews
, respondents could choose among no dietary plan, gluten-free, high-CHO (>50% dietary intake), high-protein, low-CHO (>2.2 g protein per kg body mass, <130 g CHO), LCHF (<130 g CHO), paleo (avoid grains, legumes, and dairy products), paleo for athletes (paleo with more carbs around training), periodized carb
John Stoszkowski and Hans Amato
gluten, trypsin inhibitors, and fructans ( El-Salhy et al., 2015 ; Skodje et al., 2018 ). Furthermore, refined carbohydrates in the form of flours are highly insulinogenic, which can cause reactive hypoglycaemia, which also increases cortisol ( Duong et al., 2012 ). Fruit on the other hand is a mixture