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Effects of Gluteus Medius and Biceps Femoris Stimulation on Reduction of Knee Abduction Moment During a Landing Task

Dan Wang, Man Wang, Vikki Wing-Shan Chu, Patrick Shu-Hang Yung, and Daniel T.P. Fong

perturbs the knee bilaterally and is most commonly utilized for assessment of dynamic lower-extremity biomechanics in the athletic population. 9 Reduced gluteus medius force during DVJ is one of the predictors for KAM in female athletes (the other 2 predictors are vertical and lateral ground reaction

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Rehabilitation Exercises for the Gluteus Medius Muscle Segments: An Electromyography Study

Damien Moore, Tania Pizzari, Jodie McClelland, and Adam I. Semciw

Gluteus medius (GMed) activity levels have been evaluated across a range of therapeutic exercises. 1 In most cases, single-leg weight-bearing exercises show greater activity levels than non-weight-bearing exercises when measured with a single-surface electrode over the middle GMed region. 1

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Comparative Effects of 4 Single-Leg Squat Exercises in Subjects With Gluteus Medius Weakness

Hae-rim Han, Chung-hwi Yi, Sung-hyun You, Heon-seock Cynn, One-bin Lim, and Jae-ik Son

Biomechanically, the gluteus medius (GMED) controls femoral motion during dynamic lower-extremity motion, and counteracts gravity to stabilize the pelvis in a single-leg stance. 1 , 2 However, when the GMED becomes weak, numerous neuromuscular problems including hip joint pathology, lateral hip

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Feasibility of Superimposed Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation to the Gluteus Medius During a Resistance Training Program

Matthew Robinson, Grant E. Norte, Amanda Murray, and Neal R. Glaviano

The gluteus medius (GMed) plays an integral role in pelvic stability and control of the lower-extremity during activities of daily living. The GMed weakness is a common impairment seen by clinicians who treat lower-extremity pathologies. 1 – 5 The GMed weakness is associated with greater frontal

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Effective Exercises for Targeting the Gluteus Medius

Karrie L. Hamstra-Wright and Kellie Huxel Bliven

Clinical Scenario:

The gluteus medius (GM) is thought to play an important role in stabilizing the pelvis and controlling femoral adduction and internal rotation during functional activity. GM weakness, resulting in decreased stabilization and control, has been suggested to be related to lower extremity dysfunction and injury. Many clinicians focus on strengthening the GM to improve lower extremity kinematics for the prevention and rehabilitation of injury. An indirect way to measure GM strength is through electromyography. It is generally assumed that exercises producing higher levels of activation will result in greater strengthening effects.3 Understanding what exercises result in the greatest level of GM activation will assist clinicians in their injury prevention and rehabilitation efforts.

Focused Clinical Question:

In a healthy adult population, what lower extremity exercises produce the greatest mean GM activation, expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction?

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Electromyographic Analysis of Hip and Trunk Muscle Activity During Side Bridge Exercises in Subjects With Gluteus Medius Weakness

Kyung-eun Lee, Seung-min Baik, Chung-hwi Yi, Oh-yun Kwon, and Heon-seock Cynn

Gluteal muscle strength and endurance are important for injury prevention, normalizing gait pattern and posture, reducing pain, and building up athletic performance. 1 , 2 The gluteus medius (Gmed) plays a role in maintaining a level of the pelvis and preventing hip adduction during single

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Reduced Cross-Sectional Area of the Gluteus Medius Muscle is Associated With Decreased Activities of Daily Living in Older Adult Patients With Hip Fractures

Ryo Shiraishi, Keisuke Sato, Nobumasa Chijiiwa, Sadao Yoshida, and Takahiro Ogawa

physical function decline and mortality in older adults ( Kim et al., 2018 ; Marques et al., 2021 ). Furthermore, muscle CSA of the hip joint on the affected side decreases following hip fracture ( Chi et al., 2016 ), particularly in the gluteus medius muscle (GMM; Erinç et al., 2020 ; Noda et al., 2017

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Determination of a Low Skeletal Muscle Mass Index Using the Mass of the Gluteus Medius in Older Patients With Hip Fractures

Ryo Shiraishi, Keisuke Sato, Nami Shiraishi, Sadao Yoshida, Takahiro Ogawa, and Masaki Suenaga

evaluated by CT after a fracture ( Lang et al., 2010 ). In addition, loss of gluteus medius (GM) muscle mass has been observed on CT after a hip fracture ( Erinç et al., 2020 ). Some studies have reported that this loss of GM is associated with decreased hip abductor strength and impaired walking ability

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Coupled Gluteus Maximus and Gluteus Medius Recruitment Patterns Modulate Hip Adduction Variability During Single-Limb Step-Downs: A Cross-Sectional Study

John H. Hollman, Nicholas J. Beise, Michelle L. Fischer, and Taylor L. Stecklein

adduction. Likewise, the gluteus medius abducts the hip or during weight-bearing activities, limits excessive adduction. The force-producing capacities and magnitudes of recruitment in these muscles, however, are only weakly to moderately associated with hip and knee kinematics during dynamic lower

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Gluteus Medius Activity during Isometric Closed-Chain Hip Rotation

Randy J. Schmitz, Bryan L. Riemann, and Timothy Thompson


To determine whether gluteus medius (GM) activity increases in response to isometric closed-chain external hip rotation.


Subjects performed single-leg stances in 3 different conditions: 0° knee flexion, 0° hip flexion (C1); 0° knee flexion, 20° hip flexion (C2); and knee flexed 20–30°, 20° hip flexion (C3). Posteriorly directed forces of 8.9 N (F1), 17.8 N (F2), and 26.7 N (F3) were applied at the lateral pelvis of the nonstance side during each condition.


20 college students.


Surface EMG RMS amplitude from the GM and kinematic data from the trunk, hip, and knee.


Statistical analyses revealed a significant Condition 3 Force interaction and significant increases of EMG activity from C1F1 and C1F2 to C1F3 and from C3F1 to C3F2 and C3F3. F2 and F3 of C2 were significantly less than F2 and F3 of both C1 and C3.


GM activity increases in response to isometric, closed-chain, external hip-rotation forces, and forward movement of the upper body with respect to the base of support decreases GM activity.