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Maxwell Ruby, Chris P. Repka and Paul J. Arciero

Background:

Yoga/Stretching (YS) and functional resistance (FR) training are popular exercise routines. A protein-pacing (PP) diet is a common dietary regimen. Thus, we assessed the effectiveness of a PP diet alone and in combination with either YS or FR to improve body composition and cardiometabolic health.

Methods:

Twenty-seven overweight women (age = 43.2 ± 4.6 years) were randomized into 3 groups: yoga (YS, n = 8) or resistance (FR, n = 10) training (3 days/week) in conjunction with PP diet (50% carbohydrate, 25% protein, and 25% fat) or PP diet-only (PP, n = 9) throughout 12-week study. PP maintained preexisting levels of physical activity. Body weight (BW), total (BF) and abdominal (ABF) body fat, waist circumference (WC), plasma biomarkers, and aerobic fitness (VO2) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks.

Results:

WC and total cholesterol improved in all groups, whereas glycemia tended to improve (P = .06) in S. BF, ABF, and VO2 increased significantly in YS and FR (P < .05). Feelings of vigor increased in YS and tension decreased in FR (P < .05).

Conclusions:

YS training tended to decrease blood glucose compared with FR and PP and is equally effective at enhancing body composition, and aerobic fitness in overweight women providing a strong rationale for further research on YS training.

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Javier T. Gonzalez, Martin J. Barwood, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas and Glyn Howatson

Unaccustomed eccentric exercise using large muscle groups elicits soreness, decrements in physical function and impairs markers of whole-body insulin sensitivity; although these effects are attenuated with a repeated exposure. Eccentric exercise of a small muscle group (elbow flexors) displays similar soreness and damage profiles in response to repeated exposure. However, it is unknown whether damage to small muscle groups impacts upon whole-body insulin sensitivity. This pilot investigation aimed to characterize whole-body insulin sensitivity in response to repeated bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Nine healthy males completed two bouts of eccentric exercise separated by 2 weeks. Insulin resistance (updated homeostasis model of insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR) and muscle damage profiles (soreness and physical function) were assessed before, and 48 h after exercise. Matsuda insulin sensitivity indices (ISIMatsuda) were also determined in 6 participants at the same time points as HOMA2-IR. Soreness was elevated, and physical function impaired, by both bouts of exercise (both p < .05) but to a lesser extent following bout 2 (time x bout interaction, p < .05). Eccentric exercise decreased ISIMatsuda after the first but not the second bout of eccentric exercise (time x bout interaction p < .05). Eccentric exercise performed with an isolated upper limb impairs whole-body insulin sensitivity after the first, but not the second, bout.

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Andrzej Gawrecki, Aleksandra Araszkiewicz, Agnieszka Szadkowska, Grzegorz Biegański, Jan Konarski, Katarzyna Domaszewska, Arkadiusz Michalak, Bogda Skowrońska, Anna Adamska, Dariusz Naskręt, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot, Agnieszka Szypowska, Tomasz Klupa and Dorota Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz

-day competition was an opportunity to analyze the changes in glycemia and factors that could affect it. The aim of the study was to assess the safety, glycemic control, lactate concentration, and insulin requirement of children and adolescents with T1DM playing football during a large 2-day sporting

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Brian D. Tran, Szu-Yun Leu, Stacy Oliver, Scott Graf, Diana Vigil and Pietro Galassetti

Pediatric obesity typically induces insulin resistance, often later evolving into type 2 diabetes. While exercise, enhancing insulin sensitivity, is broadly used to prevent this transition, it is unknown whether alterations in the exercise insulin response pattern occur in obese children. Therefore, we measured exercise insulin responses in 57 healthy weight (NW), 20 overweight (OW), and 56 obese (Ob) children. Blood samples were drawn before and after 30min of intermittent (2min on, 1min off) cycling at ~80% VO2max. In a smaller group (14 NW, 6 OW, 15 Ob), a high-fat meal was ingested 45 min preexercise. Baseline glycemia was similar and increased slightly and similarly in all groups during exercise. Basal insulin (pmol/L) was significantly higher in Ob vs. other groups; postexercise, insulin increased in NW (+7 ± 3) and OW (+5 ± 8), but decreased in Ob (−15 ±5, p < .0167 vs. NW). This insulin drop in Ob was disproportionately more pronounced in the half of Ob children with higher basal insulin (Ob-H). In all groups, high-fat feeding caused a rapid rise in insulin, promptly corrected by exercise. In Ob, however, insulin rose again 30 min postexercise. Our data indicates a distinct pattern of exercise-induced insulin modulation in pediatric obesity, possibly modulated by basal insulin concentrations.

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Laura A. Brocklebank, Rob C. Andrews, Angie Page, Catherine L. Falconer, Sam Leary and Ashley Cooper

Background:

The aim of this randomized, 3-period, 3-treatment crossover trial was to examine the acute effects of regularly breaking up seated office work with short bouts of standing or light-intensity walking on postprandial interstitial glucose concentration.

Methods:

Seventeen middle-aged office workers performed 3 5-hour trial conditions at their workplace in a random order: 1) uninterrupted sitting, 2) sitting interrupted by 2 minutes of standing every 20 minutes, and 3) sitting interrupted by 2 minutes of light-intensity walking every 20 minutes. Participants consumed 2 standardized test drinks at the start of each trial condition and an iPro2 continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) recorded average interstitial glucose concentration every 5 minutes for the duration of the study.

Results:

The 5-hour interstitial glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was 55.5% lower after sitting interrupted by light-intensity walking compared with after uninterrupted sitting (95% CI, –104.2% to –6.8%). There was also a suggestion of a beneficial effect of regular standing breaks, particularly in overweight men, although they were not as effective as the walking breaks (mean difference [95% CI], –29.6% [–73.9% to 14.7%]).

Conclusions:

Regularly breaking up prolonged sitting lowers postprandial glycemia in middle-aged adults without metabolic impairment.

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Brian D. Tran and Pietro Galassetti

The beneficial effects of exercise, including reduction of cardiovascular risk, are especially important in children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), in whom incidence of lifetime cardiovascular complications remains elevated despite good glycemic control. Being able to exercise safely is therefore a paramount concern. Dysregulated metabolism in T1DM however, causes frequent occurrence of both hypo- and hyperglycemia, the former typically associated with prolonged, moderate exercise, the latter with higher intensity, if shorter, challenges. While very few absolute contraindications to exercising exist in these children, exercise should not be started with glycemia outside the 80–250 mg/dl range. Within this glycemic range, careful adjustments in insulin administration (reduction or infusion rate via insulin pumps, or overall reduction of dosage of multiple injections) should be combined with carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise, based on prior, individual experience with specific exercise formats. Unfamiliar exercise should always be tackled with exceeding caution, based on known responses to other exercise formats. Finally, gaining a deep understanding of other complex exercise responses, such as the modulation of inflammatory status, which is a major determinant of the cardio-protective effects of exercise, can help determine which exercise formats and which individual metabolic conditions can lead to maximally beneficial health effects.

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Heidi K. Byrne, Yeonsoo Kim, Steven R. Hertzler, Celia A. Watt and Craig O. Mattern

Purpose:

To compare serum glucose and insulin responses to 3 preexercise snacks before, during, and after exercise in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and healthy (H) men. In addition, in an IFG population, the authors sought to determine whether a natural fruit snack (i.e., raisins) yields more desirable glucose and insulin concentrations than an energy bar or a glucose solution.

Methods:

The IFG (n = 11, age = 54.5 ± 1.3 yr, fasting blood glucose [BG] = 6.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and H groups (n = 9, age = 48.0 ± 3.1 yr, fasting BG = 4.9 ± 0.1 mmol/L) cycled at 50% of VO2peak for 45 min on 4 occasions after consuming water or 50 g of carbohydrate from raisins (R), an energy bar (EB), or a glucose beverage (GLU). Metabolic markers were measured before, during, and after exercise.

Results:

In all nutritional conditions, glucose concentrations of the IFG group were consistently higher than in the H group. Differences between IFG and H groups in insulin concentrations were sporadic and isolated. In the IFG group, preexercise glucose concentration was lower in the R condition than in GLU. Ten and 20 min into exercise, glucose concentrations in the R and EB conditions were lower than in GLU. Insulin concentrations were lower in the R condition than in EB and GLU immediately before exercise and at Minute 10 but at 20 min R remained lower than only GLU.

Conclusion:

Glucose concentrations were higher in the IFG group regardless of preexercise snack. Compared with the glucose solution, raisins lowered both the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses, whereas the energy bar reduced glycemia but not insulinemia.

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Keith Tolfrey, Julia Kirstey Zakrzewski-Fruer and Alice Emily Thackray

reducing future disease risk ( 1 ). Second, the use of continuous glucose monitoring enabled a detailed examination of glycemia, which is not often used within pediatric research and should be commended. Third, the use of 2-minute resistance-type PA breaks every 18 minutes progresses previous research

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Mynor Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jeffrey S. Martin, David D. Pascoe, Michael D. Roberts and Danielle W. Wadsworth

, the iPro2 CGM was connected to the sensor. Absolute iPro2 CGM reliability has been previously determined in individuals with T2D, obtaining a coefficient of variation ranging from 0.77 to 0.95 ( P  < .05) when comparing mean glucose concentration, postprandial, exercise, and nocturnal glycemia

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Assumpta Ensenyat, Gemma Espigares-Tribo, Leonardo Machado-Da-Silva, Xenia Sinfreu-Bergués and Alfonso Blanco

Score A continuous metabolic syndrome severity score (MetSSS) was calculated, as described by Wiley and Carrington. 29 The score contains the following 6 risk factors: WC, TG levels, HDLc levels, glycemia, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The WC was measured in