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Bart S. Lerner and Edwin A. Locke

This study investigated the effects of goal setting, self-efficacy, competition, and personality on the performance of a sit-up task. Prior to testing, participants were administered the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ; Gill & Deeter, 1988). Using a 2 × 2 + 1 design, 60 participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (a) competition, medium goal; (b) competition, high goal; (c) no competition, medium goal; and (d) no competition, high goal. A fifth group from the same population (n = 15) was added and served as the do-best comparison group. The main effect of goal level was borderline significant (p < .059), and this effect was fully mediated by personal goal level and self-efficacy. Also, both the medium and hard goal groups significantly outperformed the do-best group. Competition did not affect performance, personal goals, commitment, or self-efficacy. The SOQ was significantly related to performance, but its effects were fully mediated by personal goals and self-efficacy.

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Lisa M. Quintiliani, Marci K. Campbell, J. Michael Bowling, Susan Steck, Pamela S. Haines, and Brenda M. DeVellis


A better understanding of identifying tailoring variables would improve message design. Tailoring to a behavior that a participant selects as one they would like to work on may increase message relevance, and thus effectiveness. This trial compared 3 groups: message tailored to physical activity as a participant-selected topic (choice), message tailored to physical activity as an expert-determined topic (expert), or nontailored message (comparison).


408 female college students received web-delivered computer-tailored messages on physical activity. Outcomes were immediate and 1-month follow-up changes in psychosocial, goal-related, and behavioral variables related to physical activity.


Participants were predominately non-Hispanic White (73.8%). Change in self-efficacy and goal commitment at immediate follow-up and vigorous physical activity at 1-month follow-up was greater in the expert versus comparison group. Change in goal commitment at immediate follow-up was lower in the choice versus expert group. In the expert group, those choosing physical activity as their selected topic perceived the goal to be easier at immediate follow-up compared with those receiving unmatched messages.


Findings supported tailoring to an expert-determined topic. However, based on the beneficial change in perceived goal difficulty when topics matched, future research should encourage synchrony between participant-selected topics and expert recommendations.

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Nico W. Van Yperen

This prospective study was designed to identify psychological factors that predict career success in professional adult soccer. Post hoc, two groups were distinguished: (1) Male soccer players who successfully progressed into professional adult soccer (n = 18) and (2) Male soccer players who did not reach this level (n = 47). Differences between the two groups were examined on the basis of data gathered in the initial phase of their careers, 15 years earlier. The psychological factors that predicted career success while statistically controlling for initial performance level and demographic variables were goal commitment, engagement in problem-focused coping behaviors, and social support seeking. On the basis of their scores on the significant predictor and control variables, 84.6% of the adolescent youth players were classified correctly as successful or unsuccessful.

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Robert Weinberg, Deanna Morrison, Megan Loftin, Thelma Horn, Elizabeth Goodwin, Emily Wright, and Carly Block

batting practice, move farther back in the batter’s box, or change his routine in the on-deck circle. The areas of goal commitment and goal importance are critical to include in any goal-setting program because Locke’s ( 1968 ) seminal theoretical article, as well as many subsequent studies and reviews of

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Sophie A. Kay and Lisa R. Grimm

objective using the 5-item goal commitment scale (1 =  strongly disagree and 5 =  strongly agree ; Hollenbeck, Williams, & Klein, 1989 ; Klein, Wesson, Hollenbeck, Wright, & DeShon, 2001 ) before each exercise task. Reliabilities for goal commitment, broken down by exercise type, showed α ranging from

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, and Kathleen Wilson

randomly assigned to either the mindfulness–acceptance–commitment condition or a wait-list control condition. In the mindfulness–acceptance–commitment group, the intervention was delivered individually and included topics such as in-the-moment self-regulation, goal commitment, decision making, problem

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Laura C. Healy, Nikos Ntoumanis, and Calum A. Arthur

.J. , Hollenbeck , J.R. , & Alge , B.J. ( 1999 ). Goal commitment and the goal-setting process: Conceptual clarification and empirical synthesis . Journal of Applied Psychology, 84 ( 6 ), 885 – 896 . PubMed ID: 10639908 doi:10.1037/0021-9010.84.6.885 10.1037/0021-9010.84.6.885 Koletzko , S.H. , Herrmann

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Ashley M. Duguay, Todd M. Loughead, and James M. Cook

performance measures) and indicators of team functioning in three professional football teams. More specifically, athletes who were members of the team with the highest-quality athlete leadership reported significantly higher levels of shared purpose, goal commitment, team confidence, and task