The purpose was to examine the sport orientations and goal perspectives of wheelchair adult athletes who differed on gender and type of sport. Participants were 34 male and 14 female marathoners and 166 male and 29 female basketball players. Instruments were the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ) and the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). Separate 2 × 2 (Gender × Sport) multivariate analysis of variance revealed that on the SOQ, males scored higher on competitive orientation, females scored higher on goal orientation, and no gender differences occurred on win orientation. Basketball players scored higher on win orientation, marathoners scored higher on goal orientation, and no differences occurred between sport groups on competitiveness orientation. On the TEOSQ, there were no gender differences; marathoners scored higher on ego orientation, and no differences occurred between sport groups on task orientation.
Emmanouil K. Skordilis, Dimitra Koutsouki, Katerina Asonitou, Elizabeth Evans, Barbara Jensen, and Kenneth Wall
Joan L. Duda
Sport and exercise focused research is reviewed stemming from a goal perspective model of motivation. It is suggested that this body of literature provides insight into the variability in physical activity patterns among girls and women. Further, evidence is presented which indicates that differences in the goal perspectives operating in the athletic setting relate to whether female athletic participation is health promotive or health endangering.
Byoung Jun Kim and Diane L. Gill
This study examined the predictions of goal perspective theory within Korean youth sport. Middle-school-aged athletes (244 males and 90 females) completed the Korean versions of Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Both task and ego orientations were positively correlated with intrinsic motivation. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that overall fit for the modified versions of the TEOSQ (10 items) and the IMI (13 items) were marginal. Gender × Grade (2 × 3) MANOVAs revealed that males were higher than females on two dimensions of intrinsic motivation (perceived competence and effort/importance). Canonical correlation analyses indicated that both task and ego orientation scores corresponded to the dimensions of the IMI. These findings are discussed in terms of cross-cultural generality and cultural specificity of the goal perspective theory.
Maria Kavussanu and Glyn C. Roberts
This study examined the role of achievement goals on indices of moral functioning (i.e., moral judgment, intention and behavior), unsportsmanlike attitudes, and judgments about the legitimacy of intentionally injurious acts in college basketball players. Male (n = 56) and female (n = 143) athletes completed questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences according to gender on the variables of interest. Specifically, male athletes reported higher ego orientation, lower task orientation, lower levels of moral functioning, and greater approval of unsportsmanlike behaviors, and they were more likely than females to judge injurious acts as legitimate. For the female sample, canonical correlation analysis indicated the presence of a significant but weak relationship between goal orientations and the set of moral variables. Higher ego orientation was related to lower levels of the judgment and intention indices of moral functioning and greater acceptance of intentionally injurious acts. Although this relationship was significant, the strength of the association between the two sets of variables accounted for only 9% of the variance in the set of moral variables.
Mary D. Walling, Joan L. Duda, and Likang Chi
The purpose of this study was to further examine the construct and predictive validity of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire or PMCSQ. Young athletes (N = 169, M age = 14.2 ± 1.94 years) on teams competing in an amateur international competition completed questionnaires measuring perceived motivational climate, the degree of worry experienced while participating, and team satisfaction. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis indicated an acceptable fit of the data with the hypothetical measurement model. In terms of the predictive utility of the PMCSQ, perceptions of a mastery climate were positively related to satisfaction with being a member on the team and negatively associated with performance worry. In contrast, perceptions of a performance climate were positively associated with concerns about failing and the adequacy of one's performance and negatively correlated with team satisfaction. Future directions in terms of instrument development and research on motivational climate in the sport setting are presented.
Symeon Vlachopoulos, Stuart Biddle, and Kenneth Fox
The present study examined the relationships between achievement goal orientations, perceived sport competence, situational goal involvement, attributions for achievement outcomes, and achievement-related affect after participation in aerobic activity in children. School students age 11–14 years (N = 211) participated in either a 400-m track-and-field event or a health-related fitness test during regular physical education lessons. Participants were assessed on goal orientations and perceived sport competence prior to participation. After completing the activities, participants indicated their goals adopted during the activities, perceptions of success, attributions for success and failure, and emotions. Task involvement and perceptions of success emerged as significant predictors of positive affect, whereas perceived success inversely influenced negative affect. In addition, internal attributions for success emerged as significantly predicting positive emotion, but with a weak effect. Adoption a task goal appears to enhance children’s positive affect after physical activity participation.
This study examined the relationship among goal orientations, perceived motivation climate, self-reported discipline, reasons for discipline, and perceived teacher’s strategies to sustain discipline in physical education lessons. Six hundred and seventy-four students responded on questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Task orientation was positively associated with self-determined reasons for discipline. The perception of a task-involving climate was positively related to perceptions of teaching strategies promoting reasons for discipline determined by the students. Task-involvement and self-determined reasons for being disciplined corresponded to students’ reported discipline in the lesson. On the contrary, the perception of an ego-involving climate was linked with perceived teaching strategies promoting an external locus of causality in the lesson. The results imply that teachers who try to strengthen the task orientation of students and help them adopt more self-determined reasons for being disciplined will have more orderly classes.
Bartolomé J. Almagro, Pedro Sáenz-López, Juan A. Moreno-Murcia, and Chris Spray
This study qualitatively examined how athletes perceive their coach’s support for autonomy, as well as athletes’ motivation, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework of young Spanish athletes. Fifteen Spanish athletes (six females and nine males) between 13 and 16 years of age were interviewed from various sporting contexts. Content analysis of the interviews revealed: the coexistence of various types of motivation for the practice of these sports by the athletes that were interviewed; the presence of integrated regulation among some of these young athletes; the importance of autonomy support and the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for motivation and athletic commitment. The results are discussed on the basis of self-determination and achievement goal theory. Strategies are proposed for improving motivation and adherence to athletic practice in young athletes.
This study examined how perceived motivational climate in physical education is related to (a) perceptions of teachers’ differential treatment toward high and low achievers, (b) reported motivation and anxiety of children with high and low perceived competence during play or exercise with high- or low-ability children. One thousand three hundred ninety-three high school students completed measures of the above variables. The perception of teacher’s differential treatment was positively related to the perception of an environment emphasizing social comparison and negatively related to the perception of a climate emphasizing personal progress. Perceived competence had no effect on intrinsic motivation when extremely high learning goals were adopted. When low learning goals were adopted, motivation decreased for children with low perceived ability playing with high achievers and for children with high perceived ability playing with low achievers. A high learning-oriented climate should be created to enhance equality and maximize motivation.
Chris Harwood, Lew Hardy, and Austin Swain
This article presents a critical analysis of the conceptualization and measurement of achievement goals in sport. It highlights conceptual and measurement inconsistencies of Nicholls’s (1984) achievement-goal theory in education with respect to its applicability to sport. It proposes that differentiation between ability and effort does not underpin the activation of task and ego goal perspectives in a sport performance context and that the definitions of task and ego involvement in the classroom might not generalize to sport. It offers an alternative conceptual approach incorporating three goal perspectives, as both a theoretical and a practical solution. It addresses goal involvement in sport performance contexts by emphasizing the value of assessing self-referent and normative conceptions of achievement at different time frames. Overall, this critique attempts to advance our understanding of both achievement goals and individual performers in the competitive sport domain.