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Daryl Marchant and Patrick McLaughlin

Innovative strategies were used to inform coaching practices regarding the skill of set-shot goal kicking in Australian Football (AF). An action learning approach was adopted including planning, data gathering, analyses and dissemination phases. Three distinct approaches were used to inform AF coaches of evidence and strategies to guide implementation, a) applying statistical trend data, b) applying expert knowledge, and c) applying biomechanical principles. Trend data from a full AFL season consisting of over 4,000 set-shots was used to inform coaches on numerous performance related parameters (e.g., distance, angle). Expert insider perspectives were generated through in-depth interviews with eight retired AF goal kicking champions. The past players had all kicked over 500 goals at the elite level and four had obtained AFL Hall of Fame or AFL Legend status. The related analyses produced six primary themes (a) correct technique (b) incorrect technique, (c) pre-kick routine, (d) mental skills (e) challenges/choices and (h) training. Third, biomechanical principles were applied to set-shot kicking with accompanying images and drills provided to coaches. A two year follow-up indicated the results were highly transferable to training and competitions. Coaches in sports that include closed skills may benefit from transferring where applicable these strategies to their sports.

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Robin C. Jackson and Julien S. Baker

This paper presents a case study of the most prolific rugby goal kicker of all time. In the first part of the study, the consistency of his preperformance routine was analyzed over kicks of varying difficulty. Results indicate that while certain physical aspects of his routine remain consistent, both his concentration time and physical preparation time increase with kick difficulty. In the second part of the study, the participant was interviewed about his physical and mental preparation for rugby goal kicking in competitive situations. The interview revealed that the participant incorporates a number of psychological skills into his routine, including thought stopping, cueing, and imagery but does not do so consistently. However, he perceives the timing of his routine to be highly consistent. Implications of these findings for the recommendation that performers strive for temporal consistency in their routines (Boutcher, 1990) are discussed.

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David B. Rush and Teodoro Ayllon

Behavioral coaching has recently been found effective in developing a variety of sports skills in children, adolescents, and adults. These studies have relied on adult coaches using various behavioral techniques to develop sports skills. The present study attempted to extend these findings by substituting a peer coach for an experienced coach. The subjects were nine boys, ages 8 to 10, identified by the head coach as being deficit in three soccer skills: heading the ball, throw-ins, and goal kicking. The effects of a conventional form of coaching was compared to the behavioral one when each was conducted by the peer coach. The behavioral method included: (a) systematic use of verbal instructions and feedback, (b) positive and negative reinforcement, (c) positive practice, and (d) time out. A multiple baseline design across individuals, a reversal, and a changing criterion design were employed to evaluate the behavioral method. The results show a two- or threefold increase in soccer skill performance when behavioral coaching was used. The results were consistent for all nine players. The peer coach was found to be an effective instructor and trainer, thus demonstrating the versatility of the behavioral coaching method and the usefulness of a peer coach in extending the efforts of the head coach.

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Yaohui He, Phillip Ward and Xiaozan Wang

opponents must be this far away from the ball.  8. Where is the ball to be placed on the field for a goal kick?  9. How is a goal kick different from a goalie’s kick?  10. In which of the following is the ball still considered to be in play? Technique  11. Which of the following is incorrect when dribbling

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Behrouz Abdoli, James Hardy, Javad F. Riyahi and Alireza Farsi

, the fully repeated measures study design and the potential explosive gross motor requirements of their goal-kicking task leave alternative explanations for debate. In particular, rather than Hardy et al.’s findings attributed to the downside of instructional self-talk, they could be the result and

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Karenina Arrais Guida Modesto, Pedro Ferreira Alves de Oliveira, Hellora Gonçalves Fonseca, Klaus Porto Azevedo, Vinicius Guzzoni, Martim Bottaro, Nicolas Babault and Joao Luiz Quagliotti Durigan

squatting, passing and ball dominance, and goal kicking. In addition, they met the following criteria: healthy; male between 18 and 30 years old; presenting normal hip, knee, and ankle joint range of motion to reach a minimum of 30% of the value of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) when the