“Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn.” This famous quote by Benjamin Franklin illustrates how important active involvement in learning is for learning. In this sense, self-directed attention-focusing strategies such as goal-directed self-talk may be critical in
Alexander T. Latinjak, Marc Masó, and Nikos Comoutos
Sarah McLachlan and Martin S. Hagger
The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic goals, and between goal pursuit for intrinsically and extrinsically motivated reasons, is a central premise of self-determination theory. Proponents of the theory have proposed that the pursuit of intrinsic goals and intrinsically motivated goal striving each predict adaptive psychological and behavioral outcomes relative to the pursuit of extrinsic goals and extrinsically motivated goal striving. Despite evidence to support these predictions, research has not explored whether individuals naturally differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Two studies tested whether people make this differentiation when recalling goals for leisure-time physical activity. Using memory-recall methods, participants in Study 1 were asked to freely generate physical activity goals. A subsample (N = 43) was asked to code their freely generated goals as intrinsic or extrinsic. In Study 2, participants were asked to recall intrinsic and extrinsic goals after making a decision regarding their future physical activity. Results of these studies revealed that individuals’ goal generation and recall exhibited significant clustering by goal type. Participants encountered some difficulties when explicitly coding goals. Findings support self-determination theory and indicate that individuals discriminate between intrinsic and extrinsic goals.
Maria Newton and Mary D. Fry
The purpose of this study was of examine the motivational perspectives of athletes participating in the Senior Olympic Games. One hundred thirty-seven senior athletes (54 males. 82 females, and 1 nonidentifier) completed measures of goal orientations, beliefs about the causes of success in sport, intrinsic motivation, and views about the purpose of sport. Multivariate analysis revealed a positive association between task orientation and intrinsic motivation, the belief that success in sport is achieved through hard work, and self-improvement-based purposes of sport. In contrast, ego orientation was associated with the belief that success in sport is achieved by those who are gifted with natural ability and who know how to maximize external and deceptive factors. Further, ego orientation was linked to the belief that the purpose of sport was for personal gain. The motivational implications of the present findings are discussed based on the tenets of goal perspective theory.
G. Clayton Stoldt, Lori K. Miller, and Mark Vermillion
The purposes of this study were to gain insights regarding how sport public relations practitioners in the United States define public relations goals, identify linkages between the public relations function and overall organizational goals, and evaluate public relations’ effectiveness. Using a modified approach to a method first employed by Hon (1997, 1998), the investigators queried 30 public relations professionals in diverse sport settings. Findings indicated that achieving some sort of outcome with an intended audience, although those outcomes varied, was the most common goal. Respondents also indicated that there were linkages between public relations and organizational goals, although the nature of those linkages was not always specified. The most common method of evaluating public relations was tracking media coverage.
Salih A. Salih, Nancye M. Peel, Di Enright, and Wendy Marshall
problems such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke, certain types of cancer, and osteoporosis ( Warburton, Nicol, & Bredin, 2006 ). Maintaining appropriate PA is a public health goal for older persons ( Haskell et al., 2007 ) with additional positive effects on daily function
Robert Weinberg, Deanna Morrison, Megan Loftin, Thelma Horn, Elizabeth Goodwin, Emily Wright, and Carly Block
Goal setting is one of the most-researched areas in industrial/organizational psychology. Reviews of literature (meta-analyses and narrative) including over 500 individual and empirical studies (which have contributed to both the narrative and meta-analytic reviews) have consistently demonstrated
Laura C. Healy, Nikos Ntoumanis, and Calum A. Arthur
In daily life, the management of goals pursued simultaneously has been described as a juggling act ( Louro, Pieters, & Zeelenberg, 2007 ) and can present significant challenges for individuals. People regularly strive for multiple goals within a single context, such as a basketball player trying to
Jian Wang, Bo Shen, Xiaobin Luo, Qingshan Hu, and Alex C. Garn
Motivation has long been considered as a key factor influencing teaching and learning ( Chen & Ennis, 2004 ). According to Pintrich ( 1999 ), motivation is the process in which “goal-directed activity is instigated and sustained” (p. 4). Many education researchers (e.g., Deci & Ryan, 2002 ; Shen
E. Whitney G. Moore and Karen Weiller-Abels
, 2007 ; Elkind, 2007 ). As a result, Temple and Crane ( 2016 ) called for research “examining interactions between the individual and the environment” (p. 856). Researchers in sport psychology have utilized the two motivational climates of achievement goal theory ( Ames, 1992 ; Nicholls, 1989 ) to
Juliana S. Oliveira, Leanne Hassett, Catherine Sherrington, Elisabeth Ramsay, Catherine Kirkham, Shona Manning, and Anne Tiedemann
-term physical activity levels in community-dwelling older people ( Olanrewaju, Kelly, Cowan, Brayne, & Lafortune, 2016 ). Behavior change interventions have been used to help individuals change lifestyle behavior and to motivate them to move toward their goals by self-regulating their actions ( Brawley, Rejeski