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“Think Aloud” as a Facilitator of Self-Regulation in Golfers

Phil D.J. Birch, Beth Yeoman, and Amy E. Whitehead

technique to collect in-event cognition ( Kaiseler et al., 2012 ) and decision-making data ( Whitehead & Jackman, 2021 ). For example, TA has been used to collect data of stress appraisals and coping in trap shooting, golf, and tennis (e.g.,  Calmeiro et al., 2010 ; Kaiseler et al., 2012 ; Swettenham et

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The Self-Regulatory and Task-Specific Strategies of Elite-Level Amateur Golfers in Tournament Preparation

Jarred Pilgrim, Peter Kremer, and Sam Robertson

Golf tournaments occur over a period of days and comprise a series of rounds. Each round involves the golfer playing 18 holes in as few shots as possible. Golfers have the opportunity for preparation in the days preceding a tournament (pretournament preparation) and the period before and after each

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Reflections on a Long-Term Consultancy Relationship: Challenging the Beliefs of an Elite Golfer

John Pates and Kieran Kingston

I (first author) am a chartered sport and exercise psychologist with the British Psychological Society. I am also registered with the Health Care Professions Council in the United Kingdom. At the time of this case study, I had worked for approximately 12 months on the Professional Golfers

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Golf after Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Review of 46 Patients

Dennis Liem, Katharina Van Fabeck, Wolfgang Poetzl, Winfried Winkelmann, and Georg Gosheger


With the rising number of patients with total hip arthroplasty, there is demand for sporting activities for these patients to stay physically active.


The goal of this study was to evaluate satisfaction and golfing performance for golfers after total hip arthroplasty.

Study Design:

Retrospective cohort study.


Data of 46 golfers with an average age of 66.5 years (46–79 years) with an average follow up of 58.8 months (7–253 months) after total hip arthroplasty was analysed.


37 patients (80.4%) were able to return completely pain free, 9 patients still had pain during golf (19.6%). While satisfaction was high regardless of gender or affected side, only male golfers significantly improved their handicap and driving distance. Time spent on the golf course was the same pre- and postoperatively. Average time for returning to practice was 3.8 months; time until a full round of golf was 5.2 months. Postoperative physiotherapy was a significant factor in achieving an improved performance postoperatively.


Golfers can return to the golf course with the same frequency and performance level to stay physically active after total hip arthroplasty.

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Blazing Golf Trails in Wisconsin: Attracting Avid Golf Travelers to the State

Michael T. Manion, Peter Knight, Brenda Hayden Sheets, and Norman O’Reilly

Chip Jahne loves the challenge of the game of golf and his career in the industry. A young executive at the Wisconsin Alliance for Golf (WAG), he has only two weeks to prepare and present well-reasoned arguments to the WAG Board for designing and implementing state golf trails. The great advantage to Wisconsin of a sponsored golf trail is that it attracts tourists to travel, to stay overnight while playing multiple days, and to spend not only on greens fees, but also on lodging, food, and beverage in the state. To prepare his case, he accesses secondary market research and conducts demographic and psychographic analyses. He realizes that extending the target market to nearby out-of-state population centers depends on funding from the state department of tourism. He preliminarily designs three golf trail options for the state and contemplates the use of social media as promotion tools. Wisconsin has three resources necessary for successful golf trails: 40 or more high-quality public access golf facilities, an excellent reputation as a state for outdoor recreation, and an interstate highway system connecting population centers to tourism destinations. The missing ingredient is a consensus by the interested stakeholders on how and when to take advantage of these resources for their mutual benefit. Chip recognizes that the economic benefits to golf trail participants will depend on his tourist projections and financial forecasts, so his design must seek to maximize them.

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Concurrent Verbal Protocol Analysis in Sport: Illustration of Thought Processes During a Golf-Putting Task

Luis Calmeiro and Gershon Tenenbaum

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of concurrent verbal protocols to identify and map thought processes of players during a golf-putting task. Three novice golfers and three experienced golfers performed twenty 12-foot putts while thinking aloud. Verbalizations were transcribed verbatim and coded using an inductive method. Content analysis and event-sequence analysis were performed. Mapping of thought sequences indicated that experienced players’ cognitive processes centered on gathering information and planning, while beginners focused on technical aspects. Experienced players diagnosed current performance aspects more often than beginners did and were more likely to use this information to plan the next putt. These results are consistent with experienced players’ higher domain-specific knowledge and less reliance on step-by-step monitoring of motor performance than beginners. The methods used for recording, analyzing, and interpreting on-line thoughts of performers shed light on cognitive processes, which have implications for research.

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This Really IS What We Do With the Rest of the Day! Checking and Clarifying What High-Level Golfers Do During the Meso-Levels of Performance

Thomas Davies, Andrew Cruickshank, and Dave Collins

Recent retrospective research has identified effective meso-level thoughts and behaviors for high level golfers (i.e., those deployed between shots and holes). However, how such thoughts and behaviors are actually used during this phase of performance and, or if, they vary in different contexts is unknown. Accordingly, real-time observations followed by stimulated recall interviews were used to examine the meso-level processes used by high-level golfers during competition. Results indicated use of the same pre2- and post-shot routines identified in prior retrospective research but with key differences in the content and application of some of their stages relative to shot outcome. These similarities and differences are discussed along with implications for practitioners: including the importance of developing metacognitive skills, and prioritizing the development of performance expertise over performance competencies for high-level golfers at the meso-level of performance.

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Clicking for a Cause: Using Social Media Campaigns to Drive Awareness for Golf Tournaments and Charitable Organizations

Marion E. Hambrick, Tara Q. Mahoney, and Rich Calabrese

Sport industry leaders have recognized the popularity of social media; however, some have struggled with quantifying the benefits of such usage (Fisher, 2009). This case explores the potential opportunities social media sites can provide to sport organizations. Golf tournament organizer TampaTourneys, LLC created an administrative Facebook page to keep its Facebook users informed about events. The organization also used the page to promote a cause related marketing campaign benefitting a charitable fundraiser. Partnering with Blackhawk Computers, TampaTourneys initiated a week-long campaign, which encouraged the tournament organizer’s Facebook fans to tell their respective Facebook friends about the fundraiser and become fans of the TampaTourneys Facebook page. In turn, the organization made a monetary donation on behalf of its current and new fans. Based on the campaign’s success, TampaTourneys decided to initiate a second and longer fundraising effort. The case asks students to analyze data collected from the first fundraising campaign and develop a new campaign for the tournament organizer.

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Comparison of Two- and Three-Dimensional Methods for Analysis of Trunk Kinematic Variables in the Golf Swing

Aimée C. Smith, Jonathan R. Roberts, Eric S. Wallace, Pui Kong, and Stephanie E. Forrester

Two-dimensional methods have been used to compute trunk kinematic variables (flexion/extension, lateral bend, axial rotation) and X-factor (difference in axial rotation between trunk and pelvis) during the golf swing. Recent X-factor studies advocated three-dimensional (3D) analysis due to the errors associated with two-dimensional (2D) methods, but this has not been investigated for all trunk kinematic variables. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk kinematic variables and X-factor calculated by 2D and 3D methods to examine how different approaches influenced their profiles during the swing. Trunk kinematic variables and X-factor were calculated for golfers from vectors projected onto the global laboratory planes and from 3D segment angles. Trunk kinematic variable profiles were similar in shape; however, there were statistically significant differences in trunk flexion (–6.5 ± 3.6°) at top of backswing and trunk right-side lateral bend (8.7 ± 2.9°) at impact. Differences between 2D and 3D X-factor (approximately 16°) could largely be explained by projection errors introduced to the 2D analysis through flexion and lateral bend of the trunk and pelvis segments. The results support the need to use a 3D method for kinematic data calculation to accurately analyze the golf swing.

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Environmental Sustainability at the President’s Cup: An Eagle or a Double Bogie?

Jamee Pelcher, Sylvia Trendafilova, and Vassilios Ziakas

In August of 2019, Diane was awarded tickets and a hotel package to the President’s Cup golf tournament in Melbourne, Australia after winning her fantasy golf league. Diane, a long-time avid golf fan, could not pass up this opportunity despite the long trip to Australia from the United States