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Kornelius Kraus, Elisabeth Kraus, Boris Gojanovic and Francois Fourchet

Key Points ▸ The reliability of manual goniometry is highly dependent on the examiner. ▸ The concurrent validity of the inertial goniometer was very high compared to a 2D analysis. ▸ The ease of use, time efficiency, and concurrent validity supports the application of inertial goniometry. Range of

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Amir K. Vafadar, Julie N. Cote and Philippe S. Archambault

Context: Joint-position sense (JPS) plays a critical role in the stability of shoulder joint. Restoration of JPS is essential to improve rehabilitation outcomes in individuals with shoulder injury. However, the number of affordable and reliable shoulder-JPS measurement methods for everyday clinical practice is limited. Objective:To estimate reliability and validity of 3 simple shoulder-JPS measurement methods. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: 25 healthy men and women. Main Outcome Measure: Absolute-error scores of JPS in 3 ranges of shoulder flexion (low, mid, and high), measured with a laser pointer, an inclinometer, and a goniometer in 2 separate sessions (48 h apart). Results: Overall interrater and intrarater intraclass correlation coefficients were .86 and .78 for the laser pointer, .67 and .70 for the inclinometer, and .60 and .50 for the goniometer, respectively. There was excellent reliability in the low range for the laser pointer and inclinometer methods, but fair to good and poor reliability in mid- and high ranges, respectively. All methods showed strong validity. Conclusion: The laser pointer and inclinometer JPS measurement methods are reliable and can be used by clinicians during rehabilitation of shoulder injuries.

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Vello Hein

The purpose of this study was to compare knee extension range of motion (ROM) as measured by a newly constructed linear instrument and by a gravity goniometer among children ages 8–14 years and to establish normative values for these children. The linear instrument recorded the distance in millimeters from the border of an uplifted heel to the measurement table. Coefficients of variation for knee extension were lower when linear measurement was used than with the gravity goniometer. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient between the two methods of knee extension ROM was r = .79 (p < .001). Mean knee extension ROM was 13.2 ± 8.5 mm, or 2.8 ± 1.9°. Results of this study indicated that the constructed instrument was appropriate for assessing knee extension ROM and may be considered for use by rehabilitation specialists.

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Robert H. Wellmon, Dawn T. Gulick, Mark L. Paterson and Colleen N. Gulick


Smartphones are being used in a variety of practice settings to measure joint range of motion (ROM). A number of factors can affect the validity of the measurements generated. However, there are no studies examining smartphone-based goniometer applications focusing on measurement variability and error arising from the electromechanical properties of the device being used.


To examine the concurrent validity and interrater reliability of 2 goniometric mobile applications (Goniometer Records, Goniometer Pro), an inclinometer, and a universal goniometer (UG).


Nonexperimental, descriptive validation study.


University laboratory.


3 physical therapists having an average of 25 y of experience.

Main Outcome Measures:

Three standardized angles (acute, right, obtuse) were constructed to replicate the movement of a hinge joint in the human body. Angular changes were measured and compared across 3 raters who used 3 different devices (UG, inclinometer, and 2 goniometric apps installed on 3 different smartphones: Apple iPhone 5, LG Android, and Samsung SIII Android). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine interrater reliability and concurrent validity.


Interrater reliability for each of the smartphone apps, inclinometer and UG were excellent (ICC = .995–1.000). Concurrent validity was also good (ICC = .998–.999). Based on the Bland-Altman plots, the means of the differences between the devices were low (range = –0.4° to 1.2°).


This study identifies the error inherent in measurement that is independent of patient factors and due to the smartphone, the installed apps, and examiner skill. Less than 2° of measurement variability was attributable to those factors alone. The data suggest that 3 smartphones with the 2 installed apps are a viable substitute for using a UG or an inclinometer when measuring angular changes that typically occur when examining ROM and demonstrate the capacity of multiple examiners to accurately use smartphone-based goniometers.

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Justin M. Stanek, Jake Parish, Richard Rainville and Jeffrey G. Williams

reliability. Clinicians routinely quantify joint range of motion (ROM) as part of a comprehensive orthopedic evaluation and/or as a preventative screen. Historically, clinicians have relied on the universal goniometer to assess joint ROM and, based on their reliability, the universal goniometer is often

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Robert W. Cox, Rodrigo E. Martinez, Russell T. Baker and Lindsay Warren

Range of motion (ROM) assessment is used across diagnostic and rehabilitative processes to enhance and inform both insurance reimbursement and research studies. Common ROM assessment includes aligning the fulcrum of a plastic universal goniometer with the center of the joint being measured, the

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Nicole J. Chimera and Mallorie Larson

tested were the plantar aspect of the great toe, the head of the third, and the head of the fifth metatarsal. 21 The 3 sites were averaged together for each foot to create 2 separate composite SEN scores for the right and left feet. A biplane goniometer (SKU: SNRC7570; Patterson Medical/Sammons Preston

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Yvonne G. Ellis, Dylan P. Cliff, Steven J. Howard and Anthony D. Okely

ensuring the foot was comfortably plantar flexed and the thigh kept vertical. A goniometer was used to measure the angle between the vertical and the lateral malleolus. The average degrees for children aged 4 y is 24°. Less than 50° is normal and more than 50° is abnormal (3). Gastrocnemius length

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Gakuto Kitamura, Hiroshige Tateuchi and Noriaki Ichihashi

measured using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. Their lumbar and hip extension angles during a DK were measured using an underwater camera. In addition, their passive hip extension and shoulder-flexion ROM were measured using a goniometer. In this study, the elastic moduli of the iliacus, psoas major

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Alireza Derakhshani, Amir Letafatkar and Zohre Khosrokiani

. After each flexion, the inclinometers were reseted. 26 They performed 3 trials, and the average of these trials was calculated for the data analysis. Neck Rotation ROM Neck rotation ROM was measured using universal goniometer method. The subject seated on a bench to perform the cervical rotation test