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Bulent Agbuga and Ping Xiang

Guided by the trichotomous achievement goal framework, the current study examined mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals and their relations to self-reported persistence/effort among Turkish students in secondary physical education. Two hundred twenty-nine students in grades 8 and 11 completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and self-reported persistence/effort in secondary physical education. Results of this study revealed that 8th-graders scored significantly higher than 11th-graders on performance-approach goals and self-reported persistence/effort. Mastery goals and performance-approach goals emerged as significant positive predictors of students’ self-reported persistence/effort, but their predictive power varied by grade. Overall, results of this study provide empirical support for the trichotomous achievement goal framework in the context of secondary school physical education.

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Christine E. Johnson, Heather E. Erwin, Lindsay Kipp and Aaron Beighle

We used achievement goal theory to examine students’ physical activity (PA) motivation and physical education (PE) enjoyment. Purposes included: 1) determine whether schools with different pedagogical approaches varied in student perceptions of mastery and performance climate dimensions, enjoyment, and PA; 2) examine gender and grade differences in enjoyment and PA; and 3) determine if dimensions of motivational climate predicted enjoyment and PA levels in PE, controlling for gender and grade. Youth (n = 290, 150 girls) from three southeast United States middle schools wore a pedometer and completed a motivational climate and enjoyment questionnaire. Boys were more active and enjoyed PE more than girls, and 7th/8th grade students were more active than 6th grade students. Enjoyment was positively predicted by teacher’s emphasis on two mastery climate dimensions, controlling for gender. PE activity time was predicted by two performance climate dimensions, controlling for gender and grade. Implications for practice are discussed.

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Emmie Hsu, Steve Bardfield, Bryant J. Cratty and Alan Garfinkel

This pilot study was conducted to test the usefulness of angle-angle diagrams and phase plane plots obtained through high-speed cinematographical methods for making graded assessments of associated movements in children. Kinematic data at the shoulder, elbow, and ankle joints of normal and motorically awkward children (5-7 years old) were obtained from digitized films of normal and heel walking trials on a motor driven treadmill. A computer program was developed to smooth, calculate, differentiate, and plot data. Angle-angle diagrams depicting simultaneous joint angular displacements of (a) shoulder versus ankle and (b) elbow versus ankle revealed graded differences in decoupling of joint motion, limb excursions, and joint range-of-motion changes between the 5-year-old, 7-year-old awkward, and 7-year-old normal subject. Phase planes of the shoulder, elbow, and ankle joint were obtained by plotting joint angular displacement against joint angular velocity. Differences in size, shape, and looping behavior showed the quantity of change and whether the changes were gradual or sudden. This noninvasive methodology and eventual standardization of angle-angle diagrams and phase planes could prove to be useful in providing more precise diagnoses of associated movements and other subtle movement disorders.

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Panos Constantinides and Stephen Silverman

results with a decrease in attitude across grade level. Given the same pattern of grade difference in usefulness-curriculum, the lack of significant differences for other variables, and the descriptive statistics for those dependent variables for which there were differences, it appears that usefulness

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Hannah G. Calvert, Matthew T. Mahar, Brian Flay and Lindsey Turner

, Adachi M , Nonoue K , Oka K . Gender and grade differences in objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns among Japanese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study . BMC Public Health . 2015 ; 15 : 1254 . PubMed doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2607-3 10.1186/s12889

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Susana Meireles, Neil D. Reeves, Richard K. Jones, Colin R. Smith, Darryl G. Thelen and Ilse Jonkers

grades: differences between OA severities . J Biomech . 2010 ; 43 : 2595 – 2600 . PubMed ID: 20627301 doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.05.006 20627301 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.05.006 27. D’Lima DD , Fregly BJ , Patil S , Steklov N , Colwell CW Jr . Knee joint forces: prediction, measurement