the domain, intentions to enroll, grade, and task and ego goal orientation. This study, therefore, explored associations between these outcomes and the HEXACO trait personality dimensions in high school PE. Since students’ volition and learning tend to stem from their goals ( Chen, 2001 ; Chen
Graham E. Caldwell, Li Li, Steve D. McCole and James M. Hagberg
Alterations in kinetic patterns of pedal force and crank torque due to changes in surface grade (level vs. 8% uphill) and posture (seated vs. standing) were investigated during cycling on a computerized ergometer. Kinematic data from a planar cine analysis and force data from a pedal instrumented with piezoelectric crystals were recorded from multiple trials of 8 elite cyclists. These measures were used to calculate pedal force, pedal orientation, and crank torque profiles as a function of crank angle in three conditions: seated level, seated uphill, and standing uphill. The change in surface grade from level to 8% uphill resulted in a shift in pedal angle (toe up) and a moderately higher peak crank torque, due at least in part to a reduction in the cycling cadence. However, the overall patterns of pedal and crank kinetics were similar in the two seated conditions. In contrast, the alteration in posture from sitting to standing on the hill permitted the subjects to produce different patterns of pedal and crank kinetics, characterized by significantly higher peak pedal force and crank torque that occurred much later in the downstroke. These kinetic changes were associated with modified pedal orientation (toe down) throughout the crank cycle. Further, the kinetic changes were linked to altered nonmuscular (gravitational and inertial) contributions to the applied pedal force, caused by the removal of the saddle as a base of support.
Sarah J. Willis, Jules Gellaerts, Benoît Mariani, Patrick Basset, Fabio Borrani and Grégoire P. Millet
B , Quiniou G , Saboul D , Hautier CA . Comparison of level and graded treadmill tests to evaluate endurance mountain runners . J Sports Sci Med . 2016 ; 15 : 239 – 246 . PubMed ID: 27274660 27274660 14. Koppo K , Bouckaert J , Jones AM . Effects of training status and exercise
Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Chalchisa Abdeta, Patrick Abi Nader, Ade F. Adeniyi, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Dolores S. Andrade Tenesaca, Jasmin Bhawra, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Catherine E. Draper, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Karla I. Galaviz, Silvia A. González, Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Katariina Kämppi, Tarun R. Katapally, Piyawat Katewongsa, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Asaduzzaman Khan, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Estelle Lambert, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Juan López-Taylor, Yang Liu, Daga Makaza, Taru Manyanga, Bilyana Mileva, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, Vida K. Nyawornota, Reginald Ocansey, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Pairoj Saonuam, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Natasha Schranz, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Narayan Subedi, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Dawn Tladi, Richard Tyler, Riaz Uddin, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Ching-Lin Wu, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay
activity and its correlates, the Global Matrix of Report Card grades on physical activity was launched for the first time in 2014. 16 Physical activity Report Cards were developed based on the Canadian Report Card model, 17 using a harmonized process for data gathering, assessing, and assigning grades to
Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Natasha Schranz, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Richard Tyler, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay
is needed to explore environmental and sociocultural explanations for these differences. To develop a better understanding of childhood physical activity and inactivity across countries, the first Global Matrix (Global Matrix 1.0) of Report Card grades on physical activity was launched in 2014. 36
Melinda Forthofer, Marsha Dowda, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Cheryl L. Addy, Samantha McDonald, Lauren Reid and Russell R. Pate
schools, 1080 [501 boys and 579 girls (58.1%)] agreed to participate in the study, and school-level response rates in fifth grade averaged 64% in one school district and 57% in the other school district. At baseline, 35.1% of participants were black, 11.2% were Hispanic, 36.4% were white, and 17.3% were
Laura J. Petranek, Nicole D. Bolter and Ken Bell
the overhand throw during kindergarten and first grade, yet outcome objectives are not established until the second grade. Learning and performance expectations for children in different grades vary; practitioners recognize that younger learners are different from older ones. Lesson plans are tailored
Sarah Wollersheim Shervey and James C. DiPerna
There are many purported benefits to recess including engaging in physical activity, forming positive peer relationships, and taking a break from the classroom. Current research, however, is inconclusive regarding the presence of gender and developmental differences in physical activity that takes place during recess. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the amount of physical activity that occurs during recess across gender and grade level.
Students from first- and sixth-grade classrooms participated in the study, and physical activity was measured using accelerometers to record the number of steps taken during recess.
A 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA indicated sixth grade males engaged in more physical activity than sixth grade females, first grade males, and first grade females.
Because they are not engaging in as much physical activity as their sixth grade male counterparts, ways to help female and younger students take more steps during recess should be explored.
Kasper Salin, Mikko Huhtiniemi, Anthony Watt, Harto Hakonen and Timo Jaakkola
distribution of PA and ST periods in a cohort of fifth-grade students (11–12 y old). More specifically, this study investigated differences between gender and BMI groups, and the associations among children’s BMI and different PA levels during weekdays, weekends, and PE lessons. Although previous research
Chelsie E. Winchcombe, Martyn J. Binnie, Matthew M. Doyle, Cruz Hogan and Peter Peeling
monitoring of the training program. 4 Current best practice physiological testing of flat-water sprint kayak athletes in Australia involves the completion of a laboratory-based graded exercise test (GXT) conducted on a stationary kayak ergometer. 4 This test involves 5 to 6 submaximal efforts, each of 4