monitoring of the training program. 4 Current best practice physiological testing of flat-water sprint kayak athletes in Australia involves the completion of a laboratory-based graded exercise test (GXT) conducted on a stationary kayak ergometer. 4 This test involves 5 to 6 submaximal efforts, each of 4
Chelsie E. Winchcombe, Martyn J. Binnie, Matthew M. Doyle, Cruz Hogan and Peter Peeling
Charlotte C. Benjamin, Alex Rowlands and Gaynor Parfitt
Past studies have shown the patterning of affective responses during a graded exercise test (GXT) in adult and male adolescent populations, but none have explored the patterns in adolescent girls or younger children. This study explored the patterning of affective responses during a GXT in adolescents and younger children. Forty-nine children (21 male and 28 female) aged between 8–14 years (10.8 ± 1.8 years) completed a GXT. Ventilatory threshold (VT) was identified. At the end of each incremental step, participants reported affective valence. Results revealed that affective valence assessed by the Feeling Scale (FS) significantly declined from the onset of exercise until the point of VT in the younger children, but remained relatively stable in the adolescents. Exercise above the VT brought about significant declines in affective valence regardless of age or sex, but the decrease was significantly greater in adolescents. Results suggest it may be preferable to prescribe lower exercise intensities (below VT) for children, compared with adolescents, to ensure a positive affective response.
Gregory T. Levin, Paul B. Laursen and Chris R. Abbiss
To assess the reliability of a 5-min-stage graded exercise test (GXT) and determine the association between physiological attributes and performance over stochastic cycling trials of varying distance.
Twenty-eight well-trained male cyclists performed 2 GXTs and either a 30-km (n = 17) or a 100-km stochastic cycling time trial (n = 9). Stochastic cycling trials included periods of high-intensity efforts for durations of 250 m, 1 km, or 4 km depending on the test being performing.
Maximal physiological attributes were found to be extremely reliable (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]: coefficient of variation [CV] 3.0%, intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] .911; peak power output [PPO]: CV 3.0%, ICC .913), but a greater variability was found in ventilatory thresholds and economy. All physiological variables measured during the GXT, except economy at 200 W, were correlated with 30-km cycling performance. Power output during the 250-m and 1-km efforts of the 30-km trial were correlated with VO2max, PPO, and the power output at the second ventilatory threshold (r = .58–.82). PPO was the only physiological attributed measured during the GXT to be correlated with performance during the 100-km cycling trial (r = .64).
Many physiological variables from a reliable GXT were associated with performance over shorter (30-km) but not longer (100-km) stochastic cycling trials.
Carlos Augusto Kalva-Filho, Argyris Toubekis, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, João Paulo Loures, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos and Marcelo Papoti
training routine ( 8 , 29 ). In this context, the anaerobic threshold can be estimated using a graded exercise test, where the intensity related to the substantial increase in [La − ] can be determined, being called lactate threshold (LT) intensity ( 29 ). Previous studies have demonstrated that LT
Maddison J. Jones and Peter Peeling
To compare the differences in peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and lactate threshold (LT2) between the 7 × 4-min incremental step test (7-ST) and the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) test protocols in sprint kayak athletes.
Nine highly trained kayak athletes performed the 2 laboratory test protocols. The 7-ST involved six 4-min submaximal incremental stages, each separated by a 1-min recovery, before a 4-min all-out effort. The MAOD test involved four 4-min submaximal incremental stages (also with each stage separated by a 1-min recovery), followed by 20-min recovery and a 4-min all-out effort.
No statistically significant differences in VO2peak were recorded between the 2 protocols (P > .05). However, distance covered, power output, stroke rate, and speed were almost certainly greater in the MAOD test (magnitude-based inference: 99–100% positive), while blood lactate (BLa), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were likely lower (magnitude-based inference: 78–92% negative). The derived measures of LT2 (excluding HR) were not different between the 2 protocols.
The results of this study suggest that both the 7-ST and MAOD test protocols are comparable with regard to the measurement of VO2peak and LT2 in highly trained sprint kayak athletes. However, since differences in the measures of distance traveled, power, stroke rate, HR, BLa, and RPE were reported in the maximal stage of the these 2 test protocols, their interchangeable use in a laboratory setting is not ideal if the data output is to be compared and contrasted over time.
Mark Kramer, Mark Watson, Rosa Du Randt and Robert W. Pettitt
over a 3-week period. Anthropometric measurements were taken (height and weight), as well as undergoing several familiarization bouts for the various tests during the initial session. On the second visit, participants performed a graded exercise test (GXT) with a verification bout to validate whether a
Leighton Jones, Jasmin C. Hutchinson and Elizabeth M. Mullin
and Future Research Affective responses were recorded during a graded exercise test to account for the entire range of exercise intensities and to anchor responses around relevant respiratory markers. This laboratory-based exercise test is not representative of a typical exercise session or setting
Dereck L. Salisbury and Fang Yu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among peak exercise parameters on 6-min walk test, shuttle walk test, and laboratory-based cardiopulmonary exercise testing in persons with Alzheimer’s dementia. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data of 90 participants (age 77.1 [6.6] years, 43% female) from the FIT-AD trial. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing produced significantly higher peak heart rate (118.6 [17.5] vs. 106 [22.8] vs. 106 [18.8] beats/min), rating of perceived exertion (16 [2.1] vs. 12 [2.3] vs. 11 [2.1]), and systolic blood pressure (182 [23.7] vs. 156 [18.9] vs. 150 [16.9] mmHg) compared with the shuttle walk test and 6-min walk test, respectively. Peak walking distance on shuttle walk test (241.3 [127.3] m) and 6-min walk test (365.0 [107.9] m) significantly correlated with peak oxygen consumption (17.1 [4.3] ml·kg−1·min−1) on cardiopulmonary exercise testing (r = .449, p ≤ .001 and r = .435, p ≤ .001), respectively, which is considerably lower than what is seen in older adults and persons with cardiopulmonary diseases.
Zackary S. Cicone, Oleg A. Sinelnikov and Michael R. Esco
Maximal heart rate (MHR) is defined as the highest heart rate a person can attain during a graded exercise test (GXT) and is a noninvasive yet robust physiological indicator used within a variety of situations. As heart rate typically increases proportionally with exercise intensity ( 12 ), this
José R. Lillo-Bevia and Jesús G. Pallarés
exercises tests, one for each selected fixed cadence (70 CAD, 85 CAD, and 100 CAD), at 6 submaximal workloads (ie, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 W) of 75 seconds of duration, 5 separated by 5 minutes of recovery at 75 W with free-chosen cadence. The 3 graded exercise tests were done in seated position