The polyphenol composition of green tea leaves is characterized by the flavonoid catechins, that is, catechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin epigallate, gallocatechin, and gallocatechin gallate ( Xu et al., 2004 ). Because of the processing methods of the
Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems, Mehmet Akif Şahin and Matthew David Cook
In the current study we questioned the impact of uniform color in boxing, taekwondo and wrestling. On 18 photos showing two athletes competing, the hue of each uniform was modified to blue, green or red. For each photo, six color conditions were generated (blue-red, blue-green, green-red and vice versa). In three experiments these 108 photos were randomly presented. Participants (N = 210) had to select the athlete that seemed to be more aggressive, fairer or more likely to win the fight. Results revealed that athletes wearing red in boxing and wrestling were judged more aggressive and more likely to win than athletes wearing blue or green uniforms. In addition, athletes wearing green were judged fairer in boxing and wrestling than athletes wearing red. In taekwondo we did not find any significant impact of uniform color. Results suggest that uniform color in combat sports carries specific meanings that affect others’ judgments.
Christopher Coutts, Timothy Chapin, Mark Horner and Crystal Taylor
Parks and other forms of green space are among the key environmental supports for recreational physical activity. Measurements of green space access have provided mixed results as to the influence of green space access on physical activity.
This cross-sectional study uses a geographical information system (GIS) to examine the relationships between the amount of and distance to green space and county-level (n = 67) moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the state of Florida.
The gross amount of green space in a county (P < .05) and the amount of green space within defined distances of where people live (1/4 mile, P < .01; 1/2 mile, P < .05; 1 mile, P < .01) were positively associated with self-reported levels of MVPA. Distance to the nearest green space and the amount of green space furthest from where people live (10 miles) were not significantly associated with MVPA. All measures were weighted by the population living in census tracts.
The results suggest that there is an association between the accessibility created by having more green space closer to home and MVPA, but this holds only for areas up to and including 1 mile from home.
Mette Toftager, Ola Ekholm, Jasper Schipperijn, Ulrika Stigsdotter, Peter Bentsen, Morten Grønbæk, Thomas B. Randrup and Finn Kamper-Jørgensen
This study examines the relationship between distance to green space and the level of physical activity among the population of Denmark. In addition, the relationship between distance to green space and obesity is investigated.
Data derived from the Danish National Health Interview Survey 2005, a cross-sectional survey based on a region-stratified random nationally representative sample of 21,832 Danish adults. All data are self-reported.
Respondents living more than 1 km from green space had lower odds of using green space to exercise and keep in shape compared with persons living closer than 300 m to green space (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.60−0.83). A relationship between moderate/vigorous physical activity during leisure time and distance to green space can also be found. Persons living more than 1 km from green space had higher odds of being obese (BMI ≥ 30) than those living less than 300 m from green space (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.08−1.71).
Self-reported distance to green space is related to self-reported physical activity and obesity. To exercise and keep in shape is an important reason for visiting green space, and distance to green space is associated with moderate/vigorous physical activity in leisure time.
Shanley Chong, Roy Byun, Soumya Mazumdar, Adrian Bauman and Bin Jalaludin
The aim was to investigate the association between distant green space and physical activity modified by local green space.
Information about physical activity, demographic and socioeconomic background at the individual level was extracted from the New South Wales Population Health Survey. The proportion of a postcode that was parkland was used as a proxy measure for access to parklands and was calculated for each individual.
There was a significant relationship between distant green space and engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at least once a week. No significant relationship was found between adequate physical activity and distant green space. No significant relationships were found between adequate physical activity, engaging in MVPA, and local green space. However, if respondents lived in greater local green space (≥25%), there was a significant relationship between engaging in MVPA at least once a week and distance green space of ≥20%.
This study highlights the important effect of distant green space on physical activity. Our findings also suggest that moderate size of local green space together with moderate size of distant green space are important levers for participation of physical activity.
Jamee A. Pelcher and Brian P. McCullough
initiatives in Athletics is funding, which is common across other athletic departments and sport teams ( Sport Business Journal, 2016 ). Sustainability at SU SU is regularly ranked as a top Outdoor Adventure College in the Southeast and Mid-Atlantic and ranks as a Top Green College by the Princeton Review
Vikram Nichani, Kim Dirks, Bruce Burns, Amy Bird, Susan Morton and Cameron Grant
Exposure to green space has been associated with increased physical activity. However, it is not clear whether this association is because active people preferentially live in greener areas. Relationships between exposure to green space and physical activity during pregnancy are not well defined. Our objective was to determine whether exposure to green space was associated with physical activity in pregnant women.
The current study was completed within the Growing Up in New Zealand cohort study of 6772 pregnant women. The proportion of green space in each census area unit was determined and geocoded to residential address. The association between exposure to green space and physical activity was determined using logistic regression analyses after controlling for confounding variables.
Exposure to green space was not associated with participation in physical activity during first trimester and the remainder of pregnancy once preference for living in greener neighborhoods was taken into account.
The lack of association between green space and physical activity found in this study does not necessarily mean that living in green space will not translate into better pregnancy health. Preference for living in greener neighborhoods should be considered when investigating relationships between green space and physical activity.
Rob Millington, Simon C. Darnell and Brad Millington
modernization and the environment, Brian Wilson and Brad Millington ( 2013 ) note that the environment has only recently been discussed within the critical sociological analysis of sport. They point to David Chernushenko’s ( 1994 ) Greening our Games and John Bale’s ( 1993 ) Sport, Space and the City as two
million after rapid growth that corresponded to its early wheat boom. Woven through population figures lie painful stories of those who have left for “greener pastures.” Writer Sharon Butala likens Saskatchewan to “a holding area where one wait[s] impatiently till one [is] old enough to leave in order to
Brian J. Martin, Rachel B. Tan, Jenna B. Gillen, Michael E. Percival and Martin J. Gibala
Supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) in animals has been reported to induce numerous metabolic adaptations including increased fat oxidation during exercise and improved performance. However, data regarding the metabolic and physiological effects of GTE during exercise in humans are limited and equivocal.
To examine the effects of short-term GTE treatment on resting energy expenditure (REE), wholebody substrate utilization during exercise and time trial performance.
Fifteen active men (24 ± 3 y; VO2peak = 48 ± 7 ml·kg·min−1; BMI = 26 ± 3 kg·m2(–1)) ingested GTE (3x per day = 1,000 mg/d) or placebo (PLA) for 2 day in a double-blind, crossover design (each separated by a 1 week wash-out period). REE was assessed in the fasted state. Subjects then ingested a standardized breakfast (~5.0 kcal·kg-1) and 90 min later performed a 60 min cycling bout at an intensity corresponding to individual maximal fat oxidation (44 ± 11% VO2peak), followed by a 250 kJ TT.
REE, whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2) and substrate oxidation rates during steady-state exercise were not different between treatments. However, mean heart rate (HR) was lower in GTE vs. PLA (115 ± 16 vs. 118 ± 17 beats·min−1; main effect, p = .049). Mixed venous blood [glycerol] was higher during rest and exercise after GTE vs. PLA (p = .006, main effect for treatment) but glucose, insulin and free-fatty acids were not different. Subsequent time trial performance was not different between treatments (GTE = 25:38 ± 5:32 vs. PLA = 26:08 ± 8:13 min; p = .75).
GTE had minimal effects on whole-body substrate metabolism but significantly increased plasma glycerol and lowered heart rate during steady-state exercise, suggesting a potential increase in lipolysis and a cardiovascular effect that warrants further investigation.