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Tanya R. Prewitt-White

Grooming refers to practices used by adult acquaintances to gain sexual access to and control over children ( Brackenridge & Fasting, 2005 ; Dietz, 2018 ; Lanning, 2018 ; Lanning & Dietz, 2014 ). The purpose of grooming on the behalf of a child sex offender is often, but is not always, to

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Kristine Bisgaard and Jan Toftegaard Støckel

significant amount of research on SHA in sport has been based on the theoretical frameworks presented in the book such as the grooming theory and the contingency model of sexual exploitation in sport ( Brackenridge & Fasting, 2005 ; Fasting & Sand, 2015 ; Nielsen, 2004 ). Hartill’s ( 2017 ) research built

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Nathan Millikan, Dustin R. Grooms, Brett Hoffman and Janet E. Simon

, aged 15–44 years . Scand J Med Sci Sports . 2001 ; 11 ( 1 ): 47 – 53 . PubMed ID: 11169235 doi:10.1034/j.1600-0838.2001.011001047.x 11169235 10.1034/j.1600-0838.2001.011001047.x 12. Grooms DR , Myer GD . Upgraded hardware—what about the software? Brain updates for return to play following ACL

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Louisa D. Raisbeck, Jed A. Diekfuss, Dustin R. Grooms and Randy Schmitz

Analysis All scans were performed on a Siemens Magnetom Tim Trio 3.0 T MRI scanner using a 12-channel head coil (Siemens Medical Solutions; Erlangen, Germany). Following the methods of Grooms et al, 19 T1-weighted structural images were initially obtained (repetition time = 2000 ms; echo time = 4.58 ms

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Kyung-Min Kim, Joo-Sung Kim, Jeonghoon Oh and Dustin R. Grooms

KM , Kim JS , Grooms DR . Stroboscopic vision to induce sensory reweighting during postural control . J Sport Rehabil . 2017 ; 26 ( 5 ): 1 – 11 . PubMed ID: 28605310 doi: 10.1123/jsr.2017-0035 10. Hertel J , Olmsted-Kramer LC , Challis JH . Time-to-boundary measures of postural

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Vickie Grooms Denny

The purpose of this study was to determine if an external attention focus was more effective than an internal attention focus for college female volleyball players practicing the complex open skill of the jump float serve. Sixteen college females with prior competitive volleyball playing experience were matched into either an internal or external attention focus group, each serving a total of 30 balls in three blocks of ten serves. After the pre-test, two days of practice and day off, a post-test was conducted for both groups. Results demonstrated a 25% improvement for the internal focus group and a 26.8% improvement for the external focus group. These results suggest that both internal and external focuses of attention are beneficial for practicing the complex jump float serve. However, a paired t-test from the improvement scores of both groups demonstrated no significant difference between the two practice conditions suggesting that either an internal focus or an external focus of attention is effective for practicing the complex jump float serve. In this particular study, external focus of attention was not found to be more effective than an internal focus of attention. Since these results do not support much of the research done with attention focus and sport skills, additional studies are needed comparing internal and external focus of attention, especially when practicing open sport skills.

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Janet E. Simon, Dustin R. Grooms and Carrie L. Docherty

Context: Individuals who sustain a knee surgery have been shown to have an increased likelihood to develop osteoarthritis (OA). Objective : Identify the consequences of knee surgery in a cohort of former college athletes. Design : Cross-sectional. Setting : Research laboratory. Participants: A group of 100 former Division I college athletes aged 40–65 years (60 males and 40 females) participated in the study. Interventions: All individuals self-reported whether they sustained a knee injury during college requiring surgery and if they have been diagnosed with knee OA by a medical physician post knee injury. Individuals were categorized into 3 groups: no history of knee injury requiring surgery (33 males and 24 females; 54.53 [5.95] y), history of knee surgery in college with no diagnosis of OA later in life (4 males and 6 females; 51.26 [7.29] y), and history of knee surgery in college with physician diagnosed OA later in life (23 males and 10 females; 54.21 [7.64] y). All individuals completed the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and short form-36 version 2. Main Outcome Measures: Scores on the KOOS and short form-36 version 2. Results: A majority (76.7%) of individuals who had a knee surgery in college did develop OA. The largest mean differences were between the healthy knee and surgical knee/OA groups on the KOOS-quality of life scale (mean difference: 49.76; χ 2(3) = 44.65; P < .001) and KOOS-sports scale (mean difference: 43.69; χ 2(3) = 28.69; P < .001), with the surgical knee/OA group scoring worse. Conclusions: Later in life functional limitations were observed in individuals who sustained a knee injury requiring surgery and developed OA. These findings support increased efforts toward prevention of knee injuries and consideration of the long-term implication when making treatment and return to activity decisions.

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Kyung-Min Kim, Joo-Sung Kim and Dustin R. Grooms

Context: Patients with somatosensory deficits have been found to rely more on visual feedback for postural control. However, current balance tests may be limited in identifying increased visual dependence (sensory reweighting to the visual system), as options are typically limited to eyes open or closed conditions with no progressions between. Objective: To assess the capability of stroboscopic glasses to induce sensory reweighting of visual input during single-leg balance. Design:Descriptive Setting: Laboratory Participants: 18 healthy subjects without vision or balance disorders or lower extremity injury history (9 females; age = 22.1 ± 2.1 y; height = 169.8 ± 8.5 cm; mass = 66.5 ± 10.6 kg) participated. Interventions: Subjects performed 3 trials of unipedal stance for 10 s with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC), and with stroboscopic vision (SV) that was completed with specialized eyewear that intermittently cycled between opaque and transparent for 100 ms at a time. Balance tasks were performed on firm and foam surfaces, with the order randomized. Main Outcome Measures: Ten center-of-pressure parameters were computed. Results: Separate ANOVAs with repeated measures found significant differences between the 3 visual conditions on both firm (P-values =< .001) and foam (P-values =< .001 to .005) surfaces for all measures. For trials on firm surface, almost all measures showed that balance with SV was significantly impaired relative to EO, but less impaired than EC. On the foam surface, almost all postural stability measures demonstrated significant impairments with SV compared with EO, but the impairment with SV was similar to EC. Conclusions:SV impairment of single-leg balance was large on the firm surface, but not to the same degree as EC. However, the foam surface disruption to somatosensory processing and sensory reweighting to vision lead to greater disruptive effects of SV to the same level as EC. This indicates that when the somatosensory system is perturbed even a moderate decrease in visual feedback (SV) may induce an EC level impairment to postural control during single-leg stance.

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Dustin R. Grooms, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Jonathan D. Ellis, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Christopher A. DiCesare, Scott Bonnette, Brooke Gadd, Kim D. Barber Foss, Weihong Yuan, Paula Silva, Ryan Galloway, Jed A. Diekfuss, James Leach, Kate Berz and Gregory D. Myer

extension protocol 12 and a novel loaded leg press protocol before and after training to determine adaptive changes in brain activity from the aNMT (Figure  1 ; for more information on neuroimaging collection and analysis, see Grooms et al. 13 ). During the fMRI leg press protocol, participants were

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Don Vinson, Kelvin Beeching, Michelle Morgan and Gareth Jones

Sports coaches’ commonly have a limited appreciation of pedagogy (Light & Evans, 2013). Furthermore, investigations concerning coaches’ use of performance analysis for athlete learning are rare (Groom, Cushion, & Nelson, 2011). Complex Learning Theory (CLT) advocates nonlinear and sociocultural educative approaches (Light, 2013). Considering this digital age, the aim of this investigation was to examine coaches’ use of Coach Logic—an online video-based coaching platform. Seven Head Coaches (five rugby union and two field hockey) were interviewed individually whilst their coaching staff and players contributed to group interviews. Results confirmed a priori themes of active, social and interpretive as derived from CLT. Analysis of these findings established that online coaching platforms have the capacity to facilitate the active involvement of athletes in the process of performance analysis. From a social perspective, online coaching platforms have helped to develop a positive team environment and also interpersonal working. Good practice was evident relating to interpretive approaches; however, the potential for coaches to embrace more radical conceptualisations of knowledge acquisition is stark. Online coaching platforms have a place in contemporary team sport environments and can contribute to athlete learning and other important aspects of team culture and cohesion.