, 2007 ). Because children spend a significant portion of waking hours during school, finding ways to increase school day physical activity may facilitate meeting daily guidelines. Improving gross motor skills may facilitate meeting daily physical activity guidelines in youth. Evidence suggests that the
You Fu and Ryan D. Burns
Ryan D. Burns, Youngwon Kim, Wonwoo Byun, and Timothy A. Brusseau
Fundamental gross motor skills facilitate physical health, well-being, and performance in activities of daily living for the developing child. 1 , 2 Fundamental gross motor skills manifest from rudimentary phases of infancy to complicated locomotor and manipulative movements and serve as building
Simone A. Tomaz, Alessandra Prioreschi, Estelle D. Watson, Joanne A. McVeigh, Dale E. Rae, Rachel A. Jones, and Catherine E. Draper
odds of being overweight and obese at 16–18 years, respectively. 3 Physical activity (PA), sleep, gross motor skills (GMS), and sedentary behavior (SB) are some of the important factors associated with obesity in preschool children. International 24-hour movement guidelines recommend that preschool
Jiabei Zhang, Michael Horvat, and David L. Gast
It is imperative that teachers utilize effective and efficient instructional strategies to teach task-analyzed gross motor skills in physical education activities to individuals with severe disabilities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the constant time delay procedure, which has been shown to be effective in teaching task-analyzed fine motor skills in daily living and safety activities. In this article, guidelines are presented for teaching task-analyzed gross motor skills to individuals with severe intellectual disabilities. These guidelines are based on a review of the constant time delay procedure reported in the special education literature and current research being conducted by the authors.
Teri A. Todd, Keely Ahrold, Danielle N. Jarvis, and Melissa A. Mache
is a prerequisite for the performance of many motor skills such as riding a bike, throwing a ball, or swinging on the playground swing set ( Flatters et al., 2014 ). As postural stability is a requirement for the performance of many gross motor skills, this body of literature has the potential to
Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller, and Michael Loovis
Children and adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) exhibit a mixture of cognitive, motor, and psychosocial limitation. Identifying specific inadequacies in motor proficiency in youth with ID would improve therapeutic management to enhance functional capacity and health-related physical activity. The purpose of this study was to initiate descriptive data collection of gross motor skills of youth with ID and compare those skills with competency norms. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2) was used to measure 6 items for balance (BAL), 5 items for upper limb coordination (ULC), and 6 items for bilateral coordination (BLC) of 123 males (ages 8–18) with ID but without Down syndrome. The authors performed 2,840 assessments (10–32 for each item); 944, 985, and 913 for BAL, ULC, and BLC, respectively. Mean scores for all age groups for BAL, ULC, and BLC were consistently below BOT-2 criteria. Overall motor skills of males with ID are below the competence expected for children and adolescents without disabilities.
David L. Porretta
This study investigated the effects of contextual interference on the immediate transfer and 2-day retention of a bean bag tossing task by mildly mentally handicapped children. A total of 24 boys and 24 girls with a mean chronological age of 10.2 years were randomly assigned to either a blocked, serial, or random practice condition. Following 48 practice trials with bean bags of various weights, subjects were transferred to two novel weighted bean bags. Both transfer and retention analyses showed that subjects in the random practice condition exhibited less error than subjects in either the blocked or serial practice conditions. However, these differences were not significant. Boys performed with significantly less error than girls on both transfer and retention, while regardless of gender, the heavier weighted bean bag resulted in significantly less error on transfer only. Results provide marginal support for the contention that greater contextual interference (random practice) leads to better transfer and retention than other types of practice conditions.
Victoria A. Books and Lauriece L. Zittel
Ali Brian, Sally Taunton Miedema, Jerraco L. Johnson, and Isabel Chica
; Seefeldt, 1980 ). The preschool years (e.g., ages 3–7 years) are a critical time for children to learn FMS ( Brian, Pennell, Taunton, et al., 2019 ; Clark & Metcalfe, 2002 ; Seefeldt, 1980 ). If children do not learn FMS during the preschool-aged years, resulting in a gross motor skill developmental
Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell, and Ali Brian
function skills, directly addressing the call for integrative interventions in early childhood that are efficient and streamlined ( Domitrovich et al., 2010 ). SKIP has documented success in developing gross motor skills and self-concept ( Brian et al., 2017a ; Brian, Goodway, Logan, & Sutherland, 2017b