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Sandra Silva-Santos, Amanda Santos, Michael Duncan, Susana Vale, and Jorge Mota

traditional development levels of movement skills: early movement milestones, fundamental movement skills, and specialized movement skills. The sixth level is related to functional movement skills and specialized movement skills. Thus, gross motor coordination is a specific aspect of general motor competence

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Stephanie C. Field, Christina B. Esposito Bosma, and Viviene A. Temple

The Test of Gross Motor Development–Second Edition (TGMD-2; Ulrich, 2000 ) has been one of the most widely used process-orientated measures of motor skill proficiency, with more than 1,000 citations in the international literature since it was published. Attaching meaning to raw TGMD-2 scores has

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You Fu and Ryan D. Burns

, 2007 ). Because children spend a significant portion of waking hours during school, finding ways to increase school day physical activity may facilitate meeting daily guidelines. Improving gross motor skills may facilitate meeting daily physical activity guidelines in youth. Evidence suggests that the

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Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley, and Sara Santarossa

Fundamental motor skills (FMS) are the building blocks to more complex movement patterns ( Clark & Metcalfe, 2002 ). FMS are often subdivided into include object control (now referred to in the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 [TGMD-3] as ball skills) and locomotor skills ( Gallahue, Ozumn

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Katherine Q. Scott-Andrews, Rebecca E. Hasson, Alison L. Miller, Thomas J. Templin, and Leah E. Robinson

wide range of gross motor skills (i.e., locomotor, object manipulation, and stability skills) and is positively associated with physical activity ( Robinson et al., 2015 ; Stodden et al., 2008 ). However, physical activity levels are low in both adults ( Althoff et al., 2017 ) and children ( United

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Ryan D. Burns, Youngwon Kim, Wonwoo Byun, and Timothy A. Brusseau

Fundamental gross motor skills facilitate physical health, well-being, and performance in activities of daily living for the developing child. 1 , 2 Fundamental gross motor skills manifest from rudimentary phases of infancy to complicated locomotor and manipulative movements and serve as building

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Sedigheh Salami, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes, and Parvaneh Shamsipour Dehkordi

.g., jump distance). In contrast, process-oriented tests are concerned with how the skill is performed (e.g., arm–leg coordination during running; Hands et al., 2002 ). The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) is considered one of the most widely used instruments for FMS competency ( Ulrich, 1985 , 2000 ). It

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Nadia Cristina Valentini, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Larissa Wagner Zanella, Keila G. Pereira, Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque, and Mary Elizabeth Rudisill

deficiencies is essential for early intervention to eliminate the risk of further delays ( Martini et al., 2011 ). Several motor tests are currently used to assess motor skills with adequate cross-cultural psychometrics ( Tamplain et al., 2020 ), such as the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD). All versions

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Layne Case and Joonkoo Yun

( Zwaigenbaum et al., 2015 ). One such area of recent research interest is the exploration of gross motor skill performance among children and youth with ASD ( Allen, Bredero, Van Damme, Ulrich, & Simons, 2017 ; Staples & Reid, 2010 ). Several studies suggest that children with ASD have deficits and/or delays

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Farzad Mohammadi, Abbas Bahram, Hasan Khalaji, Dale A. Ulrich, and Farhad Ghadiri

Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) is considered as one of the most frequently used measurement scales for fundamental motor skills competency ( Ulrich, 1985 , 2000 ). In addition, it is regarded as one of the most widely adopted, standardized process-oriented assessments, which provides useful