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Sandra Silva-Santos, Amanda Santos, Michael Duncan, Susana Vale, and Jorge Mota

traditional development levels of movement skills: early movement milestones, fundamental movement skills, and specialized movement skills. The sixth level is related to functional movement skills and specialized movement skills. Thus, gross motor coordination is a specific aspect of general motor competence

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Stephanie C. Field, Christina B. Esposito Bosma, and Viviene A. Temple

The Test of Gross Motor Development–Second Edition (TGMD-2; Ulrich, 2000 ) has been one of the most widely used process-orientated measures of motor skill proficiency, with more than 1,000 citations in the international literature since it was published. Attaching meaning to raw TGMD-2 scores has

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You Fu and Ryan D. Burns

, 2007 ). Because children spend a significant portion of waking hours during school, finding ways to increase school day physical activity may facilitate meeting daily guidelines. Improving gross motor skills may facilitate meeting daily physical activity guidelines in youth. Evidence suggests that the

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Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley, and Sara Santarossa

Fundamental motor skills (FMS) are the building blocks to more complex movement patterns ( Clark & Metcalfe, 2002 ). FMS are often subdivided into include object control (now referred to in the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 [TGMD-3] as ball skills) and locomotor skills ( Gallahue, Ozumn

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Ryan D. Burns, Youngwon Kim, Wonwoo Byun, and Timothy A. Brusseau

Fundamental gross motor skills facilitate physical health, well-being, and performance in activities of daily living for the developing child. 1 , 2 Fundamental gross motor skills manifest from rudimentary phases of infancy to complicated locomotor and manipulative movements and serve as building

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Layne Case and Joonkoo Yun

( Zwaigenbaum et al., 2015 ). One such area of recent research interest is the exploration of gross motor skill performance among children and youth with ASD ( Allen, Bredero, Van Damme, Ulrich, & Simons, 2017 ; Staples & Reid, 2010 ). Several studies suggest that children with ASD have deficits and/or delays

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Farzad Mohammadi, Abbas Bahram, Hasan Khalaji, Dale A. Ulrich, and Farhad Ghadiri

Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) is considered as one of the most frequently used measurement scales for fundamental motor skills competency ( Ulrich, 1985 , 2000 ). In addition, it is regarded as one of the most widely adopted, standardized process-oriented assessments, which provides useful

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Louisa D. Raisbeck, Jed A. Diekfuss, Dustin R. Grooms, and Randy Schmitz

focus and motor skill may allow for more precise rehabilitation guidelines based on specific neural mechanisms. To date this has been done primarily using fine motor movements (key pressing tasks) due to the logistics of performing a gross motor movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI

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Hyokju Maeng, E. Kipling Webster, E. Andrew Pitchford, and Dale A. Ulrich

The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD; Ulrich, 1985 , 2000 ) is a widely used assessment to evaluate fundamental movement skills (FMS) in children. The popularity of this assessment is due to the ease of administration and scoring, norm-referenced scores for diagnostic evaluation, and the

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Kerri L. Staples, E. Andrew Pitchford, and Dale A. Ulrich

across their lifespan. The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) is one of the most common measures used to evaluate motor skill competence for children between the ages of 3 and 10  years ( Ulrich, 1985 , 2000 , 2019 ). The TGMD was strategically designed to match the fundamental motor skills