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Atsushi Makimoto, Yoko Sano, Satoru Hashizume, Akihiko Murai, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Takemura and Hiroaki Hobara

unilateral or bilateral transtibial (below-knee) amputees or transfemoral (above-knee) amputees. Several studies demonstrated that individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation have asymmetric modulation of joint kinetics, 1 ground reaction forces (GRFs), 2 , 3 and related stride kinematics

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David R. Mullineaux, Clare E. Milner, Irene S. Davis and Joseph Hamill

The appropriateness of normalizing data, as one method to reduce the effects of a covariate on a dependent variable, should be evaluated. Using ratio, 0.67-nonlinear, and fitted normalizations, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ground reaction force variables and body mass (BM). Ground reaction forces were recorded for 40 female subjects running at 3.7 ± 0.18 m·s–1 (mass = 58 ± 6 kg). The explained variance for mass to forces (peak-impact-vertical = 70%; propulsive-vertical = 27%; braking = 40%) was reduced to < 0.1% for mass to ratio normalized forces (i.e., forces/BM1) with statistically significantly different power exponents (p < 0.05). The smaller covariate effect of mass on loading rate variables of 2–16% was better removed through fitted normalization (e.g., vertical-instantaneous-loading-rate/BM0.69±0.93; ±95% CI) with nonlinear power exponents ranging from 0.51 to 1.13. Generally, these were similar to 0.67 as predicted through dimensionality theory, but, owing to the large confidence intervals, these power exponents were not statistically significantly different from absolute or ratio normalized data (p > 0.05). Further work is warranted to identify the appropriate method to normalize loading rates either to mass or to another covariate. Ratio normalization of forces to mass, as predicted through Newtonian mechanics, is recommended for comparing subjects of different masses.

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Melvin R. Ramey and Keith R. Williams

Ground reaction forces were obtained for the three phases of the triple jump for four collegiate triple jumpers, two men and two women. A single force platform was used, which thereby required the subjects to execute three separate jumps to produce a single triple jump record. The vertical force records for each phase showed two peaks having magnitudes in the range of 7 to 12 times body weight (BW) and 3.3 to 5 BW, respectively. These magnitudes are substantially higher than has been reported by others for distance running, sprinting, and in some cases other jumps. The maximum horizontal forces act to decrease the velocity of the mass center, but to different degrees for the different subjects. The data show that for any phase of the jump there is considerable variability in the timing and magnitudes of the force records among the different subjects although general patterns are similar. The results suggest that the use of mean force data from a number of subjects may conceal important differences between the way individuals execute the jump.

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Ryu Nagahara, Mirai Mizutani, Akifumi Matsuo, Hiroaki Kanehisa and Tetsuo Fukunaga

walking, running, and jumping . Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol . 1980 ; 44 : 279 – 289 . PubMed doi:10.1007/BF00421627 7190922 10.1007/BF00421627 15. Munro CF , Miller DI , Fuglevand AJ . Ground reaction forces in running: a reexamination . J Biomech . 1987 ; 20 : 147 – 155 . PubMed doi:10

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Bart Van Gheluwe and Marcel Hebbelinck

This study investigates the action of nine muscles during the execution of tennis strokes such as the service, the forehand, and the volley. More precisely it was our aim, using electromyographic techniques, to determine which muscles are active and in what sequence, and to what extent they participate in the execution of the selected tennis strokes. Besides muscle action, it was informative to know the overall force action of the human body during these tennis strokes. This is realized by simultaneous recordings of the ground reaction forces of the player on a force plate. The electromyographic and force recordings were synchronized with film pictures. The EMG recordings of the tennis strokes we investigated revealed that most muscles around the shoulder and elbow joint exhibit their greatest activity during the active propulsion of the racket and during impact. Ground reaction forces, on the contrary, were generally low except for some vertical body thrust of about 300 N.

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Irene S. McClay, John R. Robinson, Thomas P. Andriacchi, Edward C Frederick, Ted Gross, Philip Martin, Gordon Valiant, Keith R. Williams and Peter R. Cavanagh

Basketball is a sport that involves multiple impacts with the ground through a variety of moves such as running Jumping, and cutting. Repetitive impacts have been associated with stress-related injuries in other sports such as running. The purpose of this investigation was to gain an understanding of the typical stresses the body experiences during common basketball moves. To this end, the ground reaction forces from 24 players from five professional basketball teams were studied. In addition, a game analysis was performed to determine the frequency of selected moves. These data indicated that certain common movements, such as jump landings and shuffling, resulted in absolute and relative forces much greater than many of those reported previously in studies of other sports. These movements were also identified in a companion paper as being associated with large angular excursions and velocities. Findings are discussed with respect to injury risks, and suggestions for future study are made.

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Sam T. Johnson, Grace M. Golden, John A. Mercer, Brent C. Mangus and Mark A. Hoffman


Form skipping has been used to help injured athletes progress to running. Because little research has been done on form-skipping mechanics, its justification as a progression to running exercises is unclear.


To compare ground-reaction forces (GRF) during form skipping and running in healthy subjects at clinically relevant speeds, 1.75 m/s and 3.83 m/s, respectively.


Dependent t tests (α = .05).


Sports-injury research center.


9 male college athletes (age 20 ± 1.33 years, mass 848.4 ± 43.24 N, height 1.80 ± 0.07 m).

Main Outcome Measures:

Average (Fz avg) and maximum (Fz max) vertical GRF and (Fy) braking impulse were compared.


Fz avg and Fz max were greater during running than during form skipping (P < .05). Braking impulses were not different (P > .05).


It appears that Fz, but not the Fy, GRF might explain why form skipping might be an appropriate progression to running.

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Chip Wade and Mark S. Redfern

Locomotion over ballast surfaces provides a unique situation for investigating the biomechanics of gait. Although much research has focused on level and sloped walking on a smooth, firm surface in order to understand the common kinematic and kinetic variables associated with human locomotion, the literature currently provides few if any discussions regarding the dynamics of locomotion on surfaces that are either rocky or uneven. The purpose of this study was to investigate a method for using force plates to measure the ground reaction forces (GRFs) during gait on ballast. Ballast is a construction aggregate of unsymmetrical rock used in industry for the purpose of forming track bed on which railway ties are laid or in yards where railroad cars are stored. It is used to facilitate the drainage of water and to create even running surfaces. To construct the experimental ballast surfaces, 31.75-mm (1¼-in.) marble ballast at depths of approximately 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) or 101.6 mm (4 in.) were spread over a carpeted vinyl tile walkway specially designed for gait studies. GRF magnitudes and time histories from a force plate were collected under normal smooth surface and under both ballast surface conditions for five subjects. GRF magnitudes and time histories during smooth surface walking were similar to GRF magnitudes and time histories from the two ballast surface conditions. The data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of using a force plate system to expand the scope of biomechanical analyses of locomotion on ballast surfaces.

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James Scales, Jamie M. O’Driscoll, Damian Coleman, Dimitrios Giannoglou, Ioannis Gkougkoulis, Ilias Ntontis, Chrisoula Zisopoulou and Mathew Brown

vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF); namely the peak loading force, midstance force minimum, and late stance thrust maximum in response to load carriage in soldiers. 11 During extended periods of load carriage, these elevated ground reaction forces may accumulate into stress fractures. A third

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Julie R. Steele and Peter D. Milburn

This study examined the influence of 12 different synthetic sport surfaces (bitumen, concrete, 3 samples of synthetic grass, and 7 samples of rubber surfaces) on ground reaction forces at landing in netball. Ground reaction force data were obtained for 10 skilled netball players at landing after performing a typical attacking netball movement pattern. Force–time histories of the maximum peak vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF), the initial peak VGRF, and peak braking forces were determined for each trial. Results of the a priori planned comparison analysis indicated that subjects demonstrated significantly longer time to maximum peak VGRF and initial peak VGRF when landing on grass, higher peak braking forces when landing on bitumen and concrete combined, and a significantly shorter time to peak braking force when landing on grass in comparison to other samples tested. It was concluded that the rubber surfaces tested demonstrated the potential for being the most suitable playing surface for minimization of injuries in netball.