when theory-based PA behavior change strategies are combined with group dynamics strategies targeting group processes, structure, and environment (see Table 1 for examples of these strategies). 22 – 24 Group dynamics is a field of study that examines the positive and negative forces that reside
Heather J. Leach, Katie B. Potter and Mary C. Hidde
Brennan Petersen, Mark Eys, Kody Watson and M. Blair Evans
physical activity motivation in sport programs ( Côté, Turnnidge, & Evans, 2014 ). Given the prevalence of group contexts in sport and the importance of the social environment for motivating youth 1 participants, understanding and enhancing group dynamics is critical to facilitate youths’ participation in
Mark R. Beauchamp, Alan Maclachlan and Andrew M. Lothian
Contemporary group dynamics theorists and practitioners consistently highlight the importance of effective communication in facilitating successful team functioning (cf. Carron & Hausenblas, 1998). In this review paper, we explore how an understanding of Jungian preferences (cf. Jung, 1921/1971a) can provide an important theory-driven framework for those concerned with group dynamics in sport. As a basis for improved interaction, this model suggests that in order to effectively “adapt and connect” with other team members, one must first develop an acute understanding of self as well as the patterns of preferences that characterize those with whom one interacts. In this paper, we discuss the theoretical structure of this model and explain how the model can inform group dynamics interventions in sport.
Emily L. Mailey, Jennifer Huberty and Brandon C. Irwin
The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of a web-based intervention to promote physical activity and self-worth among working mothers.
Participants (N = 69) were randomly assigned to receive a standard web-based intervention or an enhanced intervention that included group dynamics strategies to promote engagement. The 8-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory. Each week, participants were instructed to complete 3 tasks: listen to a podcast related to well-being, complete a workbook assignment, and communicate with other participants on a discussion board. Participants in the enhanced condition received an additional weekly task to enhance group cohesion. Data were collected at baseline, week 8, and week 16.
Physical activity (P < .001, η2 = 0.35) and self-worth (P < .001, η2 = 0.39) increased significantly in both groups following the intervention, and introjected (P < .001, η2 = 0.30) and external motivation (P = .04, η2 = 0.10) decreased. Website use declined across the 8-week intervention in both groups (P < .001, η2 = 0.48); however, discussion board use was higher in the enhanced condition (P = .04, η2 = 0.21).
These findings suggest web-based interventions can improve physical activity and self-worth among working mothers. Group dynamics strategies only minimally enhanced user engagement, and future studies are needed to optimize web-based intervention designs.
Luc J. Martin, Jessi Wilson, M. Blair Evans and Kevin S. Spink
Although cliques are often referenced in sporting circles, they have received little attention in the group dynamics literature. This is surprising given their potential influence on group-related processes that could ultimately influence team functioning (e.g., Carron & Eys, 2012). The present study examined competitive athletes’ perceptions of cliques using semistructured interviews with 18 (nine female, nine male) intercollegiate athletes (Mage = 20.9, SD = 1.6) from nine sport teams. Athletes described the formation of cliques as an inevitable and variable process that was influenced by a number of antecedents (e.g., age/tenure, proximity, similarity) and ultimately shaped individual and group outcomes such as isolation, performance, and sport adherence. Further, athletes described positive consequences that emerged when existing cliques exhibited more inclusive behaviors and advanced some areas of focus for the management of cliques within sport teams. Results are discussed from both theoretical and practical perspectives.
Emily Sparvero, Randall Griffiths and Jacob Tingle
This immersive, multi-case experience consists of four distinct cases and one meta-case that require students to engage with several organizational behavior topics. First, the meta-case takes the form of Texas Sport Leadership Consultants (TSLC), a fictitious company which consults with local sport management professionals in a variety of contexts. Students participate as temporary members of the company to analyze the issues and challenges associated with working as a member of TSLC. TSLC work groups are hired by four different clients, each of whom has a unique organizational behavior challenge. These clients include: (1) a combat-oriented sport company; (2) a company that provides luxury sport experiences for business travelers; (3) Division II athletic directors; and (4) a minor league hockey team. The clients face challenges related to mission and vision, group dynamics, change leadership, and power and politics. Student groups analyze the case and provide recommendations, which are presented as the basis for discussion among TSLC colleagues.
Stuart L. Smith
A figurational framework is employed to analyze aspects of the phenomenon of mass nonelite road running in Britain. More particularly, the paper explores the dynamics of identifiable participant-groups in a sport where, formally, all are in competition with all. The analysis of data derived, primarily from a series of interviews with a range of participants in Britain, indicates that there are three identifiable participant-groups involved in the sport. A distinction between “athletes” and others—a distinction between winners and losers—is widely recognized outside road running circles, but one between “runners” and “joggers” is not. This lack of general recognition gives rise to a tension between these groups, more acutely felt on the part of the runners, as they are faced with having to defend what they see as an important status difference.
Jens Kleinert, Jeannine Ohlert, Bert Carron, Mark Eys, Deborah Feltz, Chris Harwood, Lother Linz, Roland Seiler and Marion Sulprizio
Working with teams and training groups is a common and major challenge for applied sport psychologists. This document is a position statement on the rationales, methods, and procedures of team-focused approaches in the practice of sport psychology. Furthermore, practice recommendations and research desiderata are discussed. To develop the paper, a consensus conference with nine experts from North America and Europe was held in Spring 2010. First, the paper presents the rationale for team-focused interventions and addresses the concepts of team cohesion, team efficacy, team potency, and a task involving leadership style. Second, the contributions of sport psychologists to enhancing group functioning are discussed, including methods for enhancing interpersonal skills, team climate, and coach athlete relationships. Third, determinants of how sport psychologists decide procedure and build trust in working with teams are articulated. Finally, the consensus group recommends an intensified effort to examine the effects and practice applicability of theory-driven, ecologically valid interventions.
Jenn M. Jacobs, K. Andrew R. Richards, Zach Wahl-Alexander and James D. Ressler
toward a common goal ( Glass & Benshoff, 2002 ). While prior research has examined the ways in which OE can be used to develop group dynamics and interpersonal communication skills among participants, in the current study, the PTs represent the facilitators of OE content. In other words, teaching OE