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Akira Asada and Yong Jae Ko

as dichotomous (i.e., minority or majority) based on previous group perception research (e.g.,  Travaglino et al., 2016 ). However, evaluation of relative size depends on individual perceptions. For example, people may think the majority of community residents support a local team even if only 40% of

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Akira Asada, Yong Jae Ko, and Wonseok (Eric) Jang

The purpose of the current study was to examine how two key characteristics of sports fan communities—relative size and homogeneity (behavioral similarity among fans)—influence potential fans’ perceptions and intentions to support the team. Study 1 showed that relative size and homogeneity created a two-way interaction effect on potential fans’ support intentions, such that the low-homogeneity fan community resulted in greater support intentions in the minority condition, whereas the high-homogeneity fan community resulted in greater support intentions in the majority condition. Study 2 revealed a boundary condition of this interaction effect: The interaction effect disappeared when potential fans had extremely low levels of involvement with watching the sport. Study 3 showed that potential fans’ perceptions regarding similarity to fans and social pressure mediated the effect of relative size on their support intentions.

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Alyson J. Crozier, Luc J. Martin, and Kevin S. Spink

certain antecedents (i.e., interactions with others, class sizes) theorized to influence groupness perceptions were positively related to groupness perceptions in adult group fitness classes. They also found that groupness perceptions were similar within groups, although individual variations were present

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Brittany N. Kiefer, Kyle E. Lemarr, Christopher C. Enriquez, Kristin A. Tivener, and Todd Daniel

Even though adaption of the Voodoo Floss Band is gaining momentum, evidence-based literature on its effectiveness remains sparse. The purpose of this quantitative observational design study was to investigate the effects of the Voodoo Floss Band on soft-tissue flexibility and perception of movement. A repeated-measures ANOVA with between-subjects factor demonstrated both groups significantly improved GH flexion range of motion from pretest to post-test but there was not a statistically significant difference between the groups. Perceptions of flexibility increased more for the Voodoo Floss Band group, demonstrating a psychological increase in GH flexion, but not a physical increase.

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Marianne Nichol, Ian Janssen, and William Pickett


The safety of neighborhoods and availability of parks and facilities may influence adolescent physical activity independently or interactively.


9114 Canadians in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey. The outcome of interest was students’ self-reported participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity outside of school. A composite scale based on questions measuring student perceptions of safety was used to capture individual perceptions of safety. In addition, schools were grouped into quintiles based on the mean of the perceived safety scale, used as a proxy for peer perceptions. The number of parks and recreational facilities within 5 km of schools was abstracted from a geographical information system.


Moderate gradients in physical activity were observed according to individual and group perceptions of safety. Boys and girls with the highest perceptions of safety were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17−1.45) and 1.45 (1.26−1.65) times more likely to be physically active, respectively, than those with the lowest perceptions. Compared with those who perceived the neighborhood as least safe, elementary students in higher quintiles were 1.31, 1.39, 1.37, and 1.56 times more likely to be physically active (P trend = 0.012). Increased numbers of recreational features were not related to physical activity irrespective of neighborhood safety.


Individual and group perceptions of neighborhood safety were modestly associated with adolescents’ physical activity.

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Jennifer A. Lindholm

The purpose of this study was to examine physical educator work motivation using personal investment theory as a theoretical framework. Public secondary school teachers (n = 73) voluntarily completed SPECTRUM, a 200-item Likert scale inventory that measures 20 self and work perception categories. One-way ANOVA results revealed few within-group perception differences based on gender, age, years of teaching experience, or job capacity. Then z tests were used to determine perception differences between physical educators and a preexisting normative sample. Comparison between groups revealed that the physical educators reported significantly lower (p < .05) incentives for accomplishment and recognition, and significantly higher (p < .05) affiliation incentives. Physical educators also reported significantly fewer (p < .05) perceived opportunities for recognition and power and significantly lower (p < .05) levels of organizational commitment. These findings provided preliminary insight into how teachers’ perceptions of themselves, their jobs, and their work environments may operate together to result in common behavioral patterns.

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Florence-Emilie Kinnafick, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Sam O. Shepherd, Oliver J. Wilson, Anton J.M. Wagenmakers, and Christopher S. Shaw

Using guidance from the reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance evaluation framework, we aimed to qualitatively evaluate the participant experiences of a workplace high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention. Twelve previously insufficiently active individuals (four males and eight females) were interviewed once as part of three focus groups. Perceptions of program satisfaction, barriers to and facilitators of adherence, and persistence to exercise were explored. HIIT initiates interest because of its novelty, provides a sense of accomplishment, and overcomes the barriers of perceived lack of time. The feeling of relatedness between the participants can attenuate negative unpleasant responses during the HIIT sessions. HIIT, in this workplace setting, is an acceptable intervention for physically inactive adults. However, participants were reluctant to maintain the same mode of exercise, believing that HIIT sessions were for the very fit.

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Elizabeth Rose and Dawne Larkin

According to Harter (1985a), global self-worth (GSW) can be predicted from the relationship between perceptions of competence and importance ratings. In this study, we employed Harter’s (1985b) Importance Rating Scale (IRS) and Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC) to examine importance ratings, discrepancy scores, and domain-specific perceptions of competence as predictors of GSW. Children (N = 130, 62 boys and 68 girls) aged 8-12 years were categorized into high (HMC; n = 62) and low motor coordination (LMC; n = 68) groups according to their scores on a motor proficiency battery (McCarron, 1982). Regression analyses using domain-specific perceptions of competence, importance, and discrepancy scores confirmed that self-perception ratings were the best predictors of GSW. For both groups, perceptions of physical appearance, social acceptance, and behavioral conduct contributed significantly to prediction of GSW. By contrast, perceived athletic competence increased prediction of GSW for the HMC group but not the LMC group.

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Tuyen Le, Jeffrey D. Graham, Sara King-Dowling, and John Cairney

hypotheses that perceptions of ability mediate reductions in aerobic and musculoskeletal exercise performance in children at risk for DCD, indirect effects analyses were computed. A preliminary examination of the correlation coefficients (Pearson’s r ) between groups, perceptions of ability, standing long

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Jared A. Russell, Sheri Brock, and Mary E. Rudisill

academic unit and institution are rated higher than those who do not, particularly when the candidate is from a culturally or ethnically/racially underrepresented group. • Perception Bias: Tendency to form quick decisions based primarily on stereotypes and assumptions about particular groups that prevents