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Heather J. Leach, Katie B. Potter and Mary C. Hidde

follow-up. 28 Table 1 Group Structure, Process, and Environment Principles Used to Increase Cohesion Strategies used Group Structure • Establish group norms for appropriate exercise (e.g., sets, reps, HR zone). • Assign roles for each exercise session (e.g., determine motivational word of the day, lead

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Mark Eys, Mark R. Beauchamp, Michael Godfrey, Kim Dawson, Todd M. Loughead and Robert J. Schinke

within sport psychology involved isolated attempts at specifically understanding this group structure variable (e.g.,  Benson et al., 2013 ; Jones, 2006 ) or as it arose as one component within a broader examination of a group’s dynamics (e.g.,  Bray, 1998 ; Holt & Sparkes, 2001 ; Mellalieu & Juniper

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Alyson J. Crozier, Luc J. Martin and Kevin S. Spink

. Although a description of each is beyond the scope of the current article, some consensus across groupness characteristics can be found: sharing of resources (e.g., expertise), presence of group processes (e.g., communication) and group structure (e.g., roles, norms), experiencing feelings of unity and

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Moira Lafferty and Caroline Wakefield

followed a pattern similar to that in research from other countries, namely America and Canada. The findings are represented by six higher order themes: (1) the event, (2) group structure, (3) initiation activities, (4) the role of alcohol, (5) perceived positive effects, and (6) negative effects. Themes 1

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Colin D. McLaren and Kevin S. Spink

.e., task-related information; Hinsz et al., 1997 ). If we apply this systems theorizing to task-based groups, the ability to successfully achieve a goal may come down to group structure, insofar as individuals are positioned appropriately to transmit (send or receive) information with other group members ( O’Reilly & Roberts

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Brennan Petersen, Mark Eys, Kody Watson and M. Blair Evans

of communication, hold common perceptions about group structure, are personally and instrumentally interdependent, reciprocate interpersonal attraction, and consider themselves to be a group. (p. 14) With interdependence being a central component of small groups/teams, in the present review we sought

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Jared D. Ramer, María E. Santiago-Rodríguez, Catherine L. Davis, David X. Marquez, Stacy L. Frazier and Eduardo E. Bustamante

structured activities (aerobic exercise in the PA group and arts/crafts/sedentary games in the AC group), and 30-minutes of free play (ie, unstructured exercise in the PA group and sedentary free play in the AC group). Structured exercise activities in the PA group were adapted from the Georgia FitKid

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

or more group dynamics strategies as a deliberate component of the intervention. The most common strategy included social support, with additional descriptions of trials revealing efforts to target or manage the group environment (e.g., group size), group processes (e.g., group goals), or group

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Heidi A. Wayment, Ann H. Huffman, Monica Lininger and Patrick C. Doyle

effectiveness of health-related educational interventions is to consider group structure. In campaigns to reduce smoking and risky sexual behavior and increase healthy behaviors, such as vaccination, 10 – 15 health messages are more effective if tailored to the social structure of the targeted group. 14 , 15

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Colin D. McLaren and Kevin S. Spink

group level that might inform perceptions of cohesion ( Cattell, 1948 ). Member interactions also are reflected in team-building models for cohesion ( Carron & Spink, 1993 ) where communication and interaction processes are identified as a throughput by which the group environment and group structure