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Heather J. Leach, Katie B. Potter, and Mary C. Hidde

when theory-based PA behavior change strategies are combined with group dynamics strategies targeting group processes, structure, and environment (see Table  1 for examples of these strategies). 22 – 24 Group dynamics is a field of study that examines the positive and negative forces that reside

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Brennan Petersen, Mark Eys, Kody Watson, and M. Blair Evans

physical activity motivation in sport programs ( Côté, Turnnidge, & Evans, 2014 ). Given the prevalence of group contexts in sport and the importance of the social environment for motivating youth 1 participants, understanding and enhancing group dynamics is critical to facilitate youths’ participation in

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Mark R. Beauchamp, Alan Maclachlan, and Andrew M. Lothian

Contemporary group dynamics theorists and practitioners consistently highlight the importance of effective communication in facilitating successful team functioning (cf. Carron & Hausenblas, 1998). In this review paper, we explore how an understanding of Jungian preferences (cf. Jung, 1921/1971a) can provide an important theory-driven framework for those concerned with group dynamics in sport. As a basis for improved interaction, this model suggests that in order to effectively “adapt and connect” with other team members, one must first develop an acute understanding of self as well as the patterns of preferences that characterize those with whom one interacts. In this paper, we discuss the theoretical structure of this model and explain how the model can inform group dynamics interventions in sport.

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Rachel A. Van Woezik, Alex J. Benson, and Mark W. Bruner

injury to a member of a sports team may affect the team. Injury events within a team may alter the personnel available to fulfill certain roles and thus disrupt existing group dynamics—for better or worse. Although a range of circumstances can arise to cause unexpected team member absences (e

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Noah Gentner

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Emily L. Mailey, Jennifer Huberty, and Brandon C. Irwin

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of a web-based intervention to promote physical activity and self-worth among working mothers.

Methods:

Participants (N = 69) were randomly assigned to receive a standard web-based intervention or an enhanced intervention that included group dynamics strategies to promote engagement. The 8-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory. Each week, participants were instructed to complete 3 tasks: listen to a podcast related to well-being, complete a workbook assignment, and communicate with other participants on a discussion board. Participants in the enhanced condition received an additional weekly task to enhance group cohesion. Data were collected at baseline, week 8, and week 16.

Results:

Physical activity (P < .001, η2 = 0.35) and self-worth (P < .001, η2 = 0.39) increased significantly in both groups following the intervention, and introjected (P < .001, η2 = 0.30) and external motivation (P = .04, η2 = 0.10) decreased. Website use declined across the 8-week intervention in both groups (P < .001, η2 = 0.48); however, discussion board use was higher in the enhanced condition (P = .04, η2 = 0.21).

Conclusions:

These findings suggest web-based interventions can improve physical activity and self-worth among working mothers. Group dynamics strategies only minimally enhanced user engagement, and future studies are needed to optimize web-based intervention designs.

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Emily Sparvero, Randall Griffiths, and Jacob Tingle

This immersive, multi-case experience consists of four distinct cases and one meta-case that require students to engage with several organizational behavior topics. First, the meta-case takes the form of Texas Sport Leadership Consultants (TSLC), a fictitious company which consults with local sport management professionals in a variety of contexts. Students participate as temporary members of the company to analyze the issues and challenges associated with working as a member of TSLC. TSLC work groups are hired by four different clients, each of whom has a unique organizational behavior challenge. These clients include: (1) a combat-oriented sport company; (2) a company that provides luxury sport experiences for business travelers; (3) Division II athletic directors; and (4) a minor league hockey team. The clients face challenges related to mission and vision, group dynamics, change leadership, and power and politics. Student groups analyze the case and provide recommendations, which are presented as the basis for discussion among TSLC colleagues.

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Luc J. Martin, Jessi Wilson, M. Blair Evans, and Kevin S. Spink

Although cliques are often referenced in sporting circles, they have received little attention in the group dynamics literature. This is surprising given their potential influence on group-related processes that could ultimately influence team functioning (e.g., Carron & Eys, 2012). The present study examined competitive athletes’ perceptions of cliques using semistructured interviews with 18 (nine female, nine male) intercollegiate athletes (Mage = 20.9, SD = 1.6) from nine sport teams. Athletes described the formation of cliques as an inevitable and variable process that was influenced by a number of antecedents (e.g., age/tenure, proximity, similarity) and ultimately shaped individual and group outcomes such as isolation, performance, and sport adherence. Further, athletes described positive consequences that emerged when existing cliques exhibited more inclusive behaviors and advanced some areas of focus for the management of cliques within sport teams. Results are discussed from both theoretical and practical perspectives.

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Alyson J. Crozier, Luc J. Martin, and Kevin S. Spink

to change each of them separately. Put simply, the group matters. Understanding group behavior falls under the purview of group dynamics, which involves research “dedicated to advancing knowledge about the nature of groups, the laws of their development, and their interrelationships with individuals

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Samantha J.D. Jeske, Lawrence R. Brawley, and Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos

enhancing LTPA behaviors. Future Research Considerations Given that this feasibility study focused more on the process of intervention implementation and group dynamics over a 4-week period (i.e., attendance, adherence, group cohesion and collaboration), a longer efficacy trial (i.e., Phase II of the Orbit