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Shijun Zhu, Eun-Shim Nahm, Barbara Resnick, Erika Friedmann, Clayton Brown, Jumin Park, Jooyoung Cheon and DoHwan Park

analysis using data from the Bone Power Intervention study ( Nahm et al., 2015b ). This analysis was designed to use parallel process latent growth curve modeling (LGCM), a longitudinal mediation analysis approach, to examine the mediation effect of changes in self-efficacy for exercise (SEE) on the

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Meenakshi Maria Fernandes and Roland Sturm

Background:

Physical activity at school can support obesity prevention among youth. This paper assesses the role of existing school physical activity programs for a national cohort from first grade to fifth grade.

Methods:

We analyzed a cohort from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey—Kindergarten Cohort which included 8246 children in 970 schools across the country. Growth curve models estimate the effect of physical education (PE) and recess on individual child body mass trajectories controlling for child and school characteristics. Hierarchical models allow for unobserved school and child effects.

Results:

Among first graders, 7.0% met the National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommended time for PE and 70.7% met the recommended time for recess in the previous week. Boys experienced a greater increase in body mass than girls. Meeting the NASPE recommended time for recess was associated with a 0.74 unit decrease in BMI (body mass index) percentile for children overall. Meeting the NASPE recommendation for physical education was associated with 1.56 unit decrease in BMI percentile among boys but not girls.

Conclusions:

We find evidence that meeting the national recommendations for PE and recess is effective in mitigating body mass increase among children.

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David Feeny, Rochelle Garner, Julie Bernier, Amanda Thompson, Bentson H. McFarland, Nathalie Huguet, Mark S. Kaplan, Nancy A. Ross and Chris M. Blanchard

Background:

The objective of this study was to assess the associations among body mass index (BMI), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) trajectories among adults.

Methods:

Self-reported data were drawn from the Canadian National Population Health Survey, with respondents being interviewed every 2 years between 1996–97 and 2006–07. Using growth curve modeling, HRQL trajectories for individuals aged 18 and over were associated with measures of BMI and LTPA. Growth models were constructed separately for males and females.

Results:

Findings suggested that, for males, BMI categories had little impact on baseline HRQL, and no impact on the rate of change in HRQL. Among women, higher BMI categories were associated with significantly lower baseline HRQL. However, BMI had no impact on the rate of change of HRQL. Conversely, for both men and women and regardless of BMI category, LTPA had significant impacts on baseline HRQL, as well as the rate of change in HRQL. Individuals who were inactive or sedentary had much steeper declines in HRQL as they aged, as compared with individuals who were active in their leisure time.

Conclusions:

The results underscore the importance of LTPA in shaping trajectories of HRQL.

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Henry Wear and Bob Heere

identification perceptions developed over time. This analysis was conducted using a multilevel growth curve modeling approach in which eight separate models were generated. Each model within the analysis measured intraindividual change in regard to their brand association perceptions across all three time points

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Kevin Lanza, Brian Stone Jr, Paul M. Chakalian, Carina J. Gronlund, David M. Hondula, Larissa Larsen, Evan Mallen and Regine Haardörfer

understand how hot days may moderate the relationship between built environment features and outdoor physical activity of adults, this study utilized 2-level growth curve models or linear mixed-effects models. 37 Multilevel modeling was selected because each study participant reported physical activity

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Magnus Lindwall, Hulya Asci and Peter Crocker

The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of within-person change, and associations of change, in global self-esteem (GSE), physical self-perceptions (PSP), and physical activity in a sample of 705 Canadian adolescent girls over three measurements points and 24 months. The Physical Self-Perceptions Profile (PSPP) was used to measure GSE and PSP, and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) was used to assess physical activity. Latent growth curve models were used to analyze the data. All PSP variables except for body attractiveness demonstrated significant average decline, but also significant was the change in between-person heterogeneity. Change in GSE and PSP was moderately to strongly related on a between-person level and weakly to moderately associated on a within-person level. Change in physical activity was related to change in the majority of the PSP variables but not to change in GSE.

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Joyce M. Harrison, Lisa A. Preece, Connie L. Blakemore, Robert P. Richards, Carol Wilkinson and Gilbert W. Fellingham

This study examined volleyball achievement and task-specific self-efficacy for 182 students in 6 beginning college volleyball classes taught using either the Mastery Learning or Skill Teaching models. Three instructors each taught one Mastery Learning and one Skill Teaching class. Assessments included the AAHPERD pass, set. and serve tests, the Stanley spike test, successful and unsuccessful game trials. Bandura-type self-efficacy scales, and a knowledge test. A random coefficients growth curve model analyzed the intercepts and slopes of the learning curves and revealed significant pre- to posttest improvement on skills tests, self-efficacy, and the percentage of correct passes and serves in game play for all students. No significant difference existed between the two models on average number of trials per day; rate of improvement for the pass, serve, or spike skills tests; self-efficacy; percentage of correct passes, sets, or serves in game play; contacts per serve in game play; or knowledge scores. The Mastery students’ rate of learning was significantly better on the set skills test (1.3 points higher) and the percentage of successful spikes in game play, in which they started significantly lower. The low-skilled students improved at a faster rate on the serve and on self-efficacy for the pass, set, and serve. Males had higher self-efficacy than females, while females increased more rapidly in self-efficacy for the pass, set, and serve. All results were analyzed at the .05 level of significance. Students learned to play volleyball and improved significantly in skill performances with either model.

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Andrew P. Hill, Joachim Stoeber, Anna Brown and Paul R. Appleton

Perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been found to predict sports performance in athletes. To date, however, research has exclusively examined this relationship at an individual level (i.e., athletes’ perfectionism predicting their personal performance). The current study extends this research to team sports by examining whether, when manifested at the team level, perfectionism predicts team performance. A sample of 231 competitive rowers from 36 boats completed measures of self-oriented, team-oriented, and team-prescribed perfectionism before competing against one another in a 4-day rowing competition. Strong within-boat similarities in the levels of team members’ team-oriented perfectionism supported the existence of collective team-oriented perfectionism at the boat level. Two-level latent growth curve modeling of day-by-day boat performance showed that team-oriented perfectionism positively predicted the position of the boat in midcompetition and the linear improvement in position. The findings suggest that imposing perfectionistic standards on team members may drive teams to greater levels of performance.

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Kim Gammage, Desi McEwan, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

examine differences across supportive and nonsupportive environments as well as a series of growth curve models to explore the relationships between variables and physical activity. A final growth curve model was performed with the significant variables from the preliminary models. Several interactions

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MinKyoung Song, Robert F. Corwyn, Robert H. Bradley and Julie C. Lumeng

Results Table  2 presents the findings of the growth curve models examining the associations of temperament activity level and parenting behaviors with MVPA. At age 9, children in the sample spent an average of about 3 hours per day in MVPA with significant linear declines between ages 9 and 15. The