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Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte, and Howard Tennen

, 1997 ). Although some of the positive consequences of injury pertained to physical–technical development (e.g., skiing with better technique), most of the skiers identified psychological benefits in the areas of personal growth (e.g., developing nonsport interests, becoming a more empathic person) and

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Noh Zulfikri, Victor S. Selvanayagam, and Ashril Yusof

following injury. 10 , 11 In particular, when considering these predictors for players between the ages of 13 to 17 years, growth, maturation, sex, and training should also be considered. Although there are studies on racket sports and injury-risk factors among adults, age- and sex-associated development

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Mark De Ste Croix, Michal Lehnert, Eliska Maixnerova, Francisco Ayala, and Rudolf Psotta

tests using a spring-mass model approach, which have been shown to be reliable measures of SSC capability in youth populations ( 4 , 17 ). Understanding changes in stiffness during growth and maturation are essential in helping to develop appropriate performance enhancing and injury management

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Kacey C. Neely, John G.H. Dunn, Tara-Leigh F. McHugh, and Nicholas L. Holt

Traumatic and adverse events can cause people significant distress, yet individuals can experience positive growth from their struggle with such events ( Baker, Kelly, Calhoun, Cann, & Tedeschi, 2008 ). Studies have shown, for instance, that some survivors of natural disasters and serious illnesses

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Fionnuala B. Barnes, David Fletcher, and Kacey C. Neely

In search for a balanced and complete view of athlete experiences, research into growth following stressful life experiences within sport and exercise psychology has gained increasing attention ( Fletcher, 2019 ; Howells et al., 2017 ). In this instance, growth is defined as “positive changes in

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Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

-level competition are likely to have undergone several years of intensive training. Interest in the effect that intensive training at an early age has on a child’s growth and development has a long history ( Malina et al., 2013 ). This interest highlights the “catch them young” philosophy ( Rowley, 1986 ), the

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Ross Wadey, Kylie Roy-Davis, Lynne Evans, Karen Howells, Jade Salim, and Ceri Diss

nonselection and significant sporting failure ( Sarkar, Fletcher, & Brown, 2015 ). While these adversities have been found to have negative consequences, the studies also showed that adversity is not entirely debilitative; it can also bring about positive change, broadly conceptualized as growth following

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Xihe Zhu and Justin A. Haegele

student long-term knowledge growth in physical education is evident. While district-wide adoptions of a curriculum is common in many states, few studies have examined health-related fitness knowledge growth during district-wide implementation. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to examine

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Dennis J. Caine

This literature review reveals an accumulating body of evidence indicating that growth disturbance associated with both chronic and acute growth plate injury occurs in young athletes and may be more prevalent than formerly believed. Skeletal complications resulting from these injuries may include progressive bone shortening, progressive deformity, joint incongruity, and arthritic sequelae. Against this background an increased concern for the welfare of young athletes is recommended. It is emphasized that back pain or pain around a joint in young athletes may be the symptom of significant growth plate changes that require accurate diagnosis, adequate treatment, and specific recommendations about return to activity. Suggestions are given for further research and prevention of growth plate injuries.

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Valerie J. Wirth and Joe Gieck

Growth hormone is one of the many dangerous and illegal ergogenic aids currently used by athletes. In those who suffer from a growth hormone deficiency, supplementation does produce positive results: Muscle volume increases while adipose tissue volume is significantly reduced. Growth hormone supplementation can also lead to strength increases in the deficient population (2, 6, 13) as well as in the elderly population (16, 18, 25). In healthy young men, growth hormone supplementation has been shown to increase fat-free mass and to decrease fat mass. However, these changes are not accompanied by strength gains (5, 7, 23, 24). This finding, coupled with the numerous side effects associated with the drug, presents a strong case for athletes to abandon its use as an ergogenic aid.