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Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte and Howard Tennen

, 1997 ). Although some of the positive consequences of injury pertained to physical–technical development (e.g., skiing with better technique), most of the skiers identified psychological benefits in the areas of personal growth (e.g., developing nonsport interests, becoming a more empathic person) and

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Kacey C. Neely, John G.H. Dunn, Tara-Leigh F. McHugh and Nicholas L. Holt

Traumatic and adverse events can cause people significant distress, yet individuals can experience positive growth from their struggle with such events ( Baker, Kelly, Calhoun, Cann, & Tedeschi, 2008 ). Studies have shown, for instance, that some survivors of natural disasters and serious illnesses

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Ross Wadey, Kylie Roy-Davis, Lynne Evans, Karen Howells, Jade Salim and Ceri Diss

nonselection and significant sporting failure ( Sarkar, Fletcher, & Brown, 2015 ). While these adversities have been found to have negative consequences, the studies also showed that adversity is not entirely debilitative; it can also bring about positive change, broadly conceptualized as growth following

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Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

-level competition are likely to have undergone several years of intensive training. Interest in the effect that intensive training at an early age has on a child’s growth and development has a long history ( Malina et al., 2013 ). This interest highlights the “catch them young” philosophy ( Rowley, 1986 ), the

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Xihe Zhu and Justin A. Haegele

student long-term knowledge growth in physical education is evident. While district-wide adoptions of a curriculum is common in many states, few studies have examined health-related fitness knowledge growth during district-wide implementation. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to examine

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Dennis J. Caine

This literature review reveals an accumulating body of evidence indicating that growth disturbance associated with both chronic and acute growth plate injury occurs in young athletes and may be more prevalent than formerly believed. Skeletal complications resulting from these injuries may include progressive bone shortening, progressive deformity, joint incongruity, and arthritic sequelae. Against this background an increased concern for the welfare of young athletes is recommended. It is emphasized that back pain or pain around a joint in young athletes may be the symptom of significant growth plate changes that require accurate diagnosis, adequate treatment, and specific recommendations about return to activity. Suggestions are given for further research and prevention of growth plate injuries.

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Valerie J. Wirth and Joe Gieck

Growth hormone is one of the many dangerous and illegal ergogenic aids currently used by athletes. In those who suffer from a growth hormone deficiency, supplementation does produce positive results: Muscle volume increases while adipose tissue volume is significantly reduced. Growth hormone supplementation can also lead to strength increases in the deficient population (2, 6, 13) as well as in the elderly population (16, 18, 25). In healthy young men, growth hormone supplementation has been shown to increase fat-free mass and to decrease fat mass. However, these changes are not accompanied by strength gains (5, 7, 23, 24). This finding, coupled with the numerous side effects associated with the drug, presents a strong case for athletes to abandon its use as an ergogenic aid.

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Carlos E.B. Gonçalves, Luís M.L. Rama and António B. Figueiredo

The theory of deliberate practice postulates that experts are always made, not born. This theory translated to the youth-sport domain means that if athletes want to be high-level performers, they need to deliberately engage in practice during the specialization years, spending time wisely and always focusing on tasks that challenge current performance. Sport organizations in several countries around the world created specialized training centers where selected young talents practice under the supervision of experienced coaches in order to become professional athletes and integrate onto youth national teams. Early specialization and accurate observation by expert coaches or scouts remain the only tools to find a potential excellent athlete among a great number of participants. In the current study, the authors present 2 of the problems raised by talent search and the risks of such a search. Growth and maturation are important concepts to better understand the identification, selection, and development processes of young athletes. However, the literature suggests that sport-promoting strategies are being maintained despite the increased demands in the anthropometric characteristics of professional players and demands of actual professional soccer competitions. On the other hand, identifying biological variables that can predict performance is almost impossible.

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Kieran J. Marston, Belinda M. Brown, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Sabine Bird, Linda K. Wijaya, Shaun Y. M. Teo, Ralph N. Martins and Jeremiah J. Peiffer

-related cognitive decline ( Barnes, 2015 ), with key growth factors a likely mechanism, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are associated with neurogenesis, neuroprotection, and vascular growth, respectively

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Jaak Jürimäe

. Commentary Growth and maturation impact the selection, development, and progression of youth elite athletes ( 5 ). Furthermore, there appears to be a systematic discrimination against players born in the latter months of the selection year ( 1 ). This relative age effect is also rather common in youth soccer