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Veerle Puttemans, Sophie Vangheluwe, Nicole Wenderoth and Stephan P. Swinnen

When performing movements with different spatial trajectories in both upper limbs simultaneously, patterns of interference emerge that can be overcome with practice. Even though studies on the role of augmented feedback in motor learning have been abundant, it still remains to be discovered how overcoming such specific patterns of spatial interference can be optimized by instructional intervention. In the present study, one group acquired a bimanual movement with normal vision, whereas a second group received augmented feedback of the obtained trajectories on a computer screen in real time. Findings revealed that, relative to normal vision, the augmented feedback hampered skill learning and transfer to different environmental conditions. These observations are discussed in view of the benefits and pitfalls of augmented feedback in relation to task context and instructional condition.

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Mike Gillespie

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a summary knowledge of results (KR) feedback schedule (KR after every fifth trial) versus every-trial KR on the acquisition and retention of a golf putting task for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Thirty-two individuals with mild intellectual disabilities were randomly assigned to either a summary or every-trial KR group. Participants performed 50 acquisition trials, 25 one-day retention trials, and 25 one-week retention trials. Participants in the every-trial KR group scored significantly better during acquisition, while the summary KR group performed significantly better for both retention intervals. Because of the absence of an acquisition block effect, results relative to learning must be viewed with caution. Findings partially support the guidance hypothesis.

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Jeff E. Goodwin

% [ Ishikura, 2008 ]; 50% [ Winstein & Schmidt, 1990 , Experiments 2 and 3]). Results of these investigations have shown that receiving 100% relative frequency of KR in the acquisition phase produces a negative effect on learning when the feedback was removed on no-KR retention tests (see guidance hypothesis

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Julián Gandía, Xavier García-Massó, Adrián Marco-Ahulló and Isaac Estevan

facilitating motor learning in simple tasks ( Wulf & Shea, 2004 ) are consistent with the guidance hypothesis that postulates an excess of feedback during acquisition is detrimental to the motor skill learning ( Schmidt, Young, Swinnen, & Shapiro, 1989 ). The guidance hypothesis assumes it is better to give

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Stephen R. Bested, Gerome A. Manson and Luc Tremblay

is sometimes short lived once guidance is removed (e.g.,  Marchal-Crespo & Reinkensmeyer, 2008b ). Performance may decline after the removal of guidance because guidance is acting as a “crutch” for individuals (e.g.,  Salmoni, Schmidt, & Walter, 1984 ). Accordingly, the guidance hypothesis ( Salmoni

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Laura J. Petranek, Nicole D. Bolter and Ken Bell

attentional focus and motor skill acquisition among very young learners. Attentional Focus and Feedback Frequency In addition to the type of focus, the amount of attentional focused feedback provided to young learners is also important. According to the guidance hypothesis, augmented feedback can be

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Rebecca Robertson, Laura St. Germain and Diane M. Ste-Marie

% schedule under the self-observation/skilled model condition. Thus, in line with the guidance hypothesis ( Salmoni, Schmidt, & Walter, 1984 ) it is possible that the self-observation/skilled model pairing created less dependence on the extrinsic feedback and allowed the gymnasts to tune in more to the