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Ryota Ashizawa, Kazuma Yamashita, Koki Take, Kengo Okawara, Eri Mochizuki, Asuka Sakamoto, and Yoshinobu Yoshimoto

levels and reduced sedentary behavior are recommended as preventative measures against ischemic stroke recurrence ( Billinger et al., 2014 ; Kernan et al., 2016 ), and physical activity guidance has been shown to be effective for improving physical activity levels ( Balducci et al., 2019 ). However, no

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Jack Thomas Sugden, Daryl Adair, Nico Schulenkorf, and Stephen Frawley

with experience of the region, I had yet to immerse myself physically in the country. Consistent with Hammersley’s guidance about ethnographic field work ( 2016 , p. 2), my study aimed to deal with people in “everyday contexts”; information would be gathered from “a range of sources” (observation and

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Jeff E. Goodwin

% [ Ishikura, 2008 ]; 50% [ Winstein & Schmidt, 1990 , Experiments 2 and 3]). Results of these investigations have shown that receiving 100% relative frequency of KR in the acquisition phase produces a negative effect on learning when the feedback was removed on no-KR retention tests (see guidance hypothesis

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Peter Iserbyt, Jan Elen, and Daniël Behets

This article addresses the issue of instructional guidance in reciprocal peer tutoring with task cards as learning tools. Eighty-six Kinesiology students (age 17–19 years) were randomized across four reciprocal peer tutoring settings, differing in quality and quantity of guidance, to learn Basic Life Support (BLS) with task cards. The separate and combined effect of two instructional guidance variables, role switching and role definition, was investigated on learning outcomes. In all settings student pairs were given 20 min to learn BLS. Individual student performance was measured before (baseline), immediately after (intervention) and two weeks later (retention). Repeated ANOVA showed strong learning gains but no significant differences between groups for total BLS scores. However, at retention significantly more students from the most guided condition remembered and consequently performed all BLS skills. It is concluded that guidance comprising role switching and role definition enhances skill retention in reciprocal peer tutoring with task cards.

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Hendriek C. Boshuizen, Lysander Stemmerik, Marja H. Westhoff, and Marijke Hopman-Rock

Elderly participants experiencing difficulty in chair rising and with a maximum knee-extensor torque below 87.5 N · m were randomized to different versions of a strength-training program for the knee-extensors: to a high-guidance group (HG; two group sessions supervised by a physical therapist and one unsupervised home session per week, n = 17), a medium-guidance group (MG; one supervised group session and two unsupervised home sessions per week, n = 16), or a control group (C; no exercise, n = 16). Maximal isometric knee strength increased more in HG than in C (p = .03) and with increasing guidance (p = .03). The effect was mainly the result of participants with low initial strength. Walking speed increased more for HG than for C (p = .02) and than for MG (p = .06). No statistically significant improvements were seen on other functional tests. In summary, the study shows a trend toward better results with more supervision, but more and larger studies are needed to confirm this.

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Sonja Kahlmeier, Francesca Racioppi, Nick Cavill, Harry Rutter, and Pekka Oja


There is growing interest in “Health in All Policies” approaches, aiming at promoting health through policies which are under the control of nonhealth sectors. While economic appraisal is an established practice in transport planning, health effects are rarely taken into account. An international project was carried out to develop guidance and tools for practitioners for quantifying the health effects of cycling and walking, supporting their full appraisal.

Development Process:

A systematic review of existing approaches was carried out. Then, the products were developed with an international expert panel through an extensive consensus finding process.

Products and Applications:

Methodological guidance was developed which addresses the main challenges practitioners encounter in the quantification of health effects from cycling and walking. A “Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) for cycling” was developed which is being used in several countries.


There is a need for a more consistent approach to the quantification of health benefits from cycling and walking. This project is providing guidance and an illustrative tool for cycling for practical application. Results show that substantial savings can be expected. Such tools illustrate the importance of considering health in transport policy and infrastructure planning, putting “Health in All Policies” into practice.

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Madeleine Vincent-Morin and Lucile Lafont

The goal of this study was to identify the relationships between the learning choices made by pupils and their personal characteristics, including cognitive style (field dependence–independence), a motivational variable (feeling of self-efficacy), and a cognitive variable (task representation). The participants were 64 twelve-year-old sixth graders from a suburban middle school in France (35 boys and 29 girls). Cognitive style or FDI was measured with the Group Embedded Figures Test, a perceptual test that requires finding a simple geometrical figure embedded in a complex geometrical one. Five learning conditions (autonomy, tutoring, verbal instruction, silent demonstration, and verbal demonstration) were then proposed in random order to the pupils. They were asked to select a learning method to solve a motor problem: a badminton service. The results indicated an absence of relationships between the choice of a learning condition and cognitive style. Three variables partially predicted the learning-condition choice: feeling of self-efficacy, task representation, and motor performance. The present results can be interpreted in the light of studies on children’s help-seeking behavior in problem-solving situations.

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Danielle Rousseau, Kimberleigh Weiss-Lewit, and Mark Lilly

Yoga can be a tool that promotes well-being and fosters resilience. Yoga can strengthen survivors, support connection and collective responsibility, and even serve a role in trauma prevention. At the same time, we cannot ignore the potential for yoga to impart harm. In light of the #MeToo movement, we must recognize both yoga’s capacity for empowerment and resilience as well as acknowledge yoga’s place in a culture of sexual trauma. The current work explores yoga’s place in a sexual trauma context. We present empirical data demonstrating the benefits of yoga for survivors of sexual trauma and acknowledge the role of problematic power differentials in the yoga community. While we support the referral of clients to yoga practice, we advocate doing so in an informed and intentional way. We suggest best practices for client referrals and provide examples of empowered work going on in the yoga community. With integrity and through intentional and well-informed referral, we can support yoga that promotes accessibility, inclusion, and the potential for resilience in the wake of sexual trauma.

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Andy Gillham, Gary Schofield, Michael Doscher, Dan Dalrymple, and Joe Kenn

Traditional examinations of coaching philosophies consider the perspective of sport coaches (e.g., soccer, cricket, rugby). The focus on sport coaches’ coaching philosophy has advanced the study of coaching effectiveness while simultaneously omitting strength and conditioning coaches from the larger body of literature on coaching philosophy. The purpose of this paper is to reveal how award winning strength and conditioning coaches shape and use their coaching philosophy. The participants include four renowned strength and conditioning coaches, one at the high school, one at the college, and two at the professional level. A summary is provided at the end that examines commonalities (e.g., all the respondents expressed the need to have a specific coaching philosophy) and differences (e.g., how discipline factors into their coaching philosophy) across the respondents’ views and connects their viewpoints to the broader literature on sport coaching.

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Stephen R. Bested, Gerome A. Manson, and Luc Tremblay

.g., a putt). Physical guidance has been defined as, the act of “moving or being moved into a new position or location” ( Hodges & Campagnaro, 2012 , p. 179). More recently, physical guidance has been administered with the use of robotic devices. These robotic devices allow participants to be guided through