fear, sadness, hostility, and guilt. It has been suggested that feelings of guilt may arise from the conflict individuals experience from a lack of balance between work and family roles. 12 These feelings of guilt can arise in those who feel this conflict violates a social standard (e.g., women as
Christianne M. Eason, Stephanie M. Singe and Kelsey Rynkiewicz
Maria Kavussanu and Christopher Ring
experience negative emotions, such as shame or guilt, when they do not act in line with these standards. These self-sanctions regulate behavior anticipatorily, whereby individuals tend to avoid behaviors that will evoke self-condemnation ( Bandura, 1991 , 2002 ). Thus, anticipated negative emotion is a key
Nicholas Stanger, Maria Kavussanu and Christopher Ring
Aggression has been linked to empathy and emotions (e.g., guilt) in cross-sectional studies. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of empathy on emotional reactions to aggression and the role of guilt in the empathy–aggression relationship. Seventy-one undergraduate sport and exercise science students with a mean age of 19.56 (SD = 1.94) years were randomly assigned to either a high- or a low-empathy group. We experimentally manipulated empathy using perspective taking instructions and examined the following: (a) participants’ emotional reactions to images of aggressive acts; (b) their reported likelihood to aggress in a hypothetical sport situation; and (c) the extent to which they anticipated feeling guilt if they were to engage in an aggressive act. Participants in the high-empathy group experienced stronger negative emotional reactions to images of aggressive acts and reported lower likelihood to aggress than did those in the low-empathy group. Anticipated guilt partially mediated the effects of empathy on reported likelihood to aggress. Our findings suggest that empathy may help reduce aggressive behavior and highlight the potential mediating role of guilt.
Nicholas Stanger, Maria Kavussanu, David McIntyre and Christopher Ring
Although the empathy–aggression relationship has been well documented, research has yet to establish whether emotions mediate and gender moderates this relationship in athletes, under conditions of low and high provocation. In this experiment, we assigned team-sport athletes to either a high (n = 40) or a low (n = 40) empathy group, and asked them to compete in a reaction-time task against a (fictitious) opponent, under conditions of low and high provocation. Empathy reduced aggression (i.e., intensity of electrical shock administered to the opponent) at low provocation in men, and at both low and high provocation in women. Guilt mediated the effect of empathy on aggression at low provocation in men; anger did not mediate any effects of empathy on aggression. Our findings indicate that the inhibitory effect of empathy on aggression and the mediating role of guilt are moderated by provocation and gender.
Thomas Curran and Andrew P. Hill
because self-conscious emotions are activated by threats to self-worth in the achievement and interpersonal contexts and are core affective features of anxiety and depression ( Kim, Thibodeau, & Jorgensen, 2011 ). Three self-conscious emotions are especially notable here, namely, pride, guilt, and shame
Jessica Ross and Peter D. MacIntyre
, 1998 ). Analyses revealed several insights into how flow experiences differ depending on whether they are mental or physical activities. Three major themes emerged from the data that helped to differentiate flow in physical and mental activities: role of stress, source of guilt, and presence of others
Donna L. Goodwin and Amanda Ebert
disappointment, anger, and fatigue when subsequently asked to become program aides to their children. If the parents refuse to acquiesce to community demands and withdraw their children from the programs, they then assume the labor involved in managing their emotional guilt ( King et al., 2009 ; Knowles, Kirk
Matthew O. Fullmer, Carol Wilkinson, Keven A. Prusak, Dennis Eggett and Todd Pennington
boys to be more highly motivated ( Moreno, Hellín, Hellín, Cervelló, & Sicilia 2008 ; Wang & Biddle, 2001 ). Introjected regulation As students were more PALAC-compliant, their reasons for engaging in LTPA had significantly less to do with guilt or obligation. Visual proof of their record and a long
Catherine M. Sabiston, Jennifer Brunet, Kent C. Kowalski, Philip M. Wilson, Diane E. Mack and Peter R. E. Crocker
The purpose of this study was to test a model where body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride were associated with physical activity regulations and behavior. Adult women (N = 389; M age = 29.82, SD = 15.20 years) completed a questionnaire assessing body-related pride, shame, and guilt, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. The hypothesized measurement and structural models were deemed adequate, as was a revised model examining shame-free guilt and guilt-free shame. In the revised structural model, body-related pride was positively significantly related to identified and intrinsic regulations. Body-related shame-free guilt was significantly associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations. Body-related guilt-free shame was significantly positively related to external and introjected regulation, and negatively associated with intrinsic regulation. Identified and intrinsic regulations were significantly positively related to physical activity (R 2 = .62). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding the realm of body-related self-conscious emotions and the associated links to regulations and physical activity behavior.
Amber D. Mosewich, Kent C. Kowalski, Catherine M. Sabiston, Whitney A. Sedgwick and Jessica L. Tracy
Self-compassion has demonstrated many psychological benefits (Neff, 2009). In an effort to explore self-compassion as a potential resource for young women athletes, we explored relations among self-compassion, proneness to self-conscious emotions (i.e., shame, guilt-free shame, guilt, shame-free guilt, authentic pride, and hubristic pride), and potentially unhealthy self-evaluative thoughts and behaviors (i.e., social physique anxiety, obligatory exercise, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation). Young women athletes (N = 151; M age = 15.1 years) participated in this study. Self-compassion was negatively related to shame proneness, guilt-free shame proneness, social physique anxiety, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation. In support of theoretical propositions, self-compassion explained variance beyond self-esteem on shame proneness, guilt-free shame proneness, shame-free guilt proneness, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation. Results suggest that, in addition to self-esteem promotion, self-compassion development may be beneficial in cultivating positive sport experiences for young women.