The notion of habit figures prominently in theories of health-related behavior and in efforts to encourage people to develop consistency and regularity in the healthful behavior of daily life. The consensus definition of habit as automatic and mindless behavior, however, presents three logical and philosophical problems. First, this definition of habit is at odds with the way most of our theories of health behavior try to employ the notion. Second, the behaviors of concern to most health, exercise, and sport psychologists are not the kinds of behaviors to which this definition of habit applies easily, if at all. Third, the kind of mindless behavior suggested by this definition may be conducive to enhancing physical health and athletic performance, but it may be inconsistent with the essential elements of happiness or subjective well-being according to Eastern philosophies such as Taoism and Buddhism, and according to the growing research on the psychology of happiness.
James E. Maddux
Navin Kaushal, Ryan E. Rhodes, John T. Meldrum and John C. Spence
, 2010 ). For instance, implementation intentions (i.e., if-then statements) are effective in facilitating behavior as they help to create context-behavior associations ( Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006 ). In addition, nonconscious processes such as habit have also been demonstrated to predict PA ( Rebar et
Alba Pardo, Jim McKenna, Anna Mitjans, Berenguer Camps, Silvia Aranda-Garcia, Juanjo Garcia-Gil and Mariona Violan
Physicians’ own Physical Activity (PA) and other health-related habits influence PA promotion. The current study identifies the PA level, according to the current PA recommendations and other health-related habits of physicians from the Catalan Medical Council.
2400 physicians (30–55 years) were randomly selected; each received a self-administered mailed questionnaire identifying medical specialization, work setting, health self-perception, body mass index (BMI), PA, and smoking habits.
762 physicians responded (52% female). Almost 1 in 2 (49.3%) exercised sufficiently, nearly all selfperceived good health, while 80.5% were nonsmokers. Almost 6 in 10 males reported overweight or obesity (56.9%) versus 18.2% of females. Active physicians dominated specific groups: (1) aged 45–55 years, (2) specializing either in primary care or surgery, (3) working in the private sector, (4) BMI < 25kg/m2, (5) perceiving themselves in good health, or (6) having free leisure time.
Only half of Catalan physicians met current PA recommendations; male physicians were particularly at risk for overweight/obesity. Overweight and under-exercise were associated with private workplaces and positive health perceptions, meaning that it is it is now possible to target inactive and/or overweight Catalan physicians in future interventions.
Rob J.H. van Bree, Catherine Bolman, Aart N. Mudde, Maartje M. van Stralen, Denise A. Peels, Hein de Vries and Lilian Lechner
such effective interventions relies on insight into the determinants of PA and their working mechanisms. In order to contribute to this insight the current studies examine whether habit mediates the relationship between prior and later PA and whether PA simultaneously mediates the relationship between
Aline Mendes Gerage, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo Benedetti, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Ana Célia Oliveira dos Santos, Bruna Cadengue Coêlho de Souza and Fábio Araujo Almeida
Hypertension affects 30%–45% of adults worldwide. 1 It is associated with metabolic, functional, and structural changes in a variety of organs and, consequently, leads to a higher risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. 1 , 2 As physical inactivity and unhealthy eating habits are major
Jacqueline R. Berning, John P. Troup, Peter J. VanHandel, Jack Daniels and Nancy Daniels
Dietary food records from adolescent male and female swimmers participating in a national developmental training camp were analyzed for nutrient density. The mean caloric intake was 5,221.6 kcal for males and 3,572.6 kcal for females. The distribution of calories between carbohydrates, protein, and fat was not ideal for athletes trying to optimize performance. These young swimmers consumed too much fat and not enough carbohydrate. They consumed more than the RDA of vitamins A and C, and thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin; however, some concern is expressed for females who did not meet the RDA for calcium and iron. This study shows that although a group of adolescent swimmers may be consuming enough nutrients, individual swimmers may have very poor dietary habits and thus may not be providing adequate fuel or nutrients for optimal training or performance.
Dirk Aerenhouts, Marcel Hebbelinck, Jacques R. Poortmans and Peter Clarys
Purpose and Methods:
To investigate dietary habits of Flemish adolescent track and field athletes using a 7-d weighed-food record. Besides adequacy for growth, development, and physical performance, dietary health aspects were considered.
Twenty-nine girls and 31 boys, with minimum 2 yr of track and field training practice, were recruited. All participants had daily breakfast (girls 22.5% ± 5.5% of total energy intake [TEI]; boys 19.8% ± 7.3%). Fruit in girls and juices and sports drinks in boys were consumed mostly between meals (girls 21.3% ± 8.1% of TEI; boys 24.3% ± 10.1%). Soft drinks contributed considerably to energy intake between meals in both sexes. Protein intake (1.5 ± 0.3 g · kg–1 · d−1 for both sexes) was within the recommended daily intake (RDI) for strength athletes. Mean daily carbohydrate intake in girls was lower than in boys (girls 5.1 ± 1.1 g/kg; boys 6.0 ± 0.9 g/kg), with mono- and disaccharides contributing 26% to TEI in both sexes. Total fat intake was above 30% of TEI in more than half the participants, and only 10 participants had a saturated-fat intake below 10% of TEI. Fiber intake (girls 23.7 ± 7.9 g; boys 29.1 ± 11.2 g) was far below the Belgian RDI. Intake of vitamins and minerals were generally low, despite micronutrient supplementation in 37.5% of the participants.
Few athletes reached all nutrient RDIs. Unhealthy food habits with regard to refined sugars, fat, and micronutrients were observed. These adolescent sprinters should be encouraged to consume more nonsweetened beverages, fruits, and vegetables.
Amanda L. Rebar, Steriani Elavsky, Jaclyn P. Maher, Shawna E. Doerksen and David E. Conroy
Physical activity is regulated by controlled processes, such as intentions, and automatic processes, such as habits. Intentions relate to physical activity more strongly for people with weak habits than for people with strong habits, but people’s intentions vary day by day. Physical activity may be regulated by habits unless daily physical activity intentions are strong. University students (N = 128) self-reported their physical activity habit strength and subsequently self-reported daily physical activity intentions and wore an accelerometer for 14 days. On days when people had intentions that were weaker than typical for them, habit strength was positively related to physical activity, but on days when people had typical or stronger intentions than was typical for them, habit strength was unrelated to daily physical activity. Efforts to promote physical activity may need to account for habits and the dynamics of intentions.
Jing Liao, Sanmei Chen, Sha Chen and Yung-Jen Yang
evaluate key personal characteristics, social factors, psychological and behavioral habit responding to environment cues of multiyear dance. The understanding of why middle-aged and older adults, mostly women, perform square dancing in such a voluntary and routine manner may inform targeted interventions
Victor Lun, Kelly A. Erdman, Tak S. Fung and Raylene A. Reimer
Dietary supplementation is a common practice in athletes with a desire to enhance performance, training, exercise recovery, and health. Supplementation habits of elite athletes in western Canada have been documented, but research is lacking on supplement use by athletes across Canada. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation practices and perspectives of high-performance Canadian athletes affiliated with each of the country’s eight Canadian Sport Centres. Dietitians administered a validated survey to 440 athletes (63% women, 37% men; M =19.99 ± 5.20 yr) representing 34 sports who predominantly trained ≥16 hr/wk, most competing in “power” based sports. Within the previous 6 months, 87% declared having taken ≥3 dietary supplements, with sports drinks, multivitamin and mineral preparations, carbohydrate sports bars, protein powder, and meal-replacement products the most prevalent supplements reported. Primary sources of information on supplementation, supplementation justification, and preferred means of supplementation education were identified. Fifty-nine percent reported awareness of current World Anti-Doping Agency legislation, and 83% subjectively believed they were in compliance with such antidoping regulations. It was concluded that supplementation rates are not declining in Canada, current advisors on supplementation for this athletic population are not credible, and sports medicine physicians and dietitians need to consider proactive strategies to improve their influence on supplementation practices in these elite athletes.