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Nutritional Practices of Male Cyclists before and during an Ultraendurance Event

Lize Havemann and Julia H. Goedecke

The aim of the study was to investigate the pre- and during-race nutritional intake of cyclists competing in a 210-km 1-day ultraendurance cycle race. Forty-five endurancetrained male cyclists participated in this dietary survey and completed a 3-day dietary record. Mean reported carbohydrate (CHO) intake over the 3 days before the race (5.6 ± 1.7 g/kg) was below the recommended guidelines of 7–10 g/kg. Although 57% of participants indicated that they CHO loaded 1–3 days before the race, only 23% of these participants achieved CHO intakes of ≥7 g/kg over the 3-day period before the race, demonstrating a discrepancy between perceived and actual intakes of CHO. Most participants indicated the use of CHO supplements before (84%) and during (98%) the race and achieved a CHO intake of 63 ± 23 g/hr during the race. Although most cyclists failed to meet recommended prerace CHO intakes, most achieved the recommended CHO intakes during the race.

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Evening Whey Protein Intake, Rich in Tryptophan, and Sleep in Elite Male Australian Rules Football Players on Training and Nontraining Days

Cassandra Ferguson, Brad Aisbett, Michele Lastella, Spencer Roberts, and Dominique Condo

habitual dietary intake and baseline sleep measures. The four intervention conditions included: • Protein supplement on training day (whey protein supplement, 55 g protein = 1 g tryptophan) • Placebo on training day • Protein supplement on nontraining day (whey protein supplement, 55 g protein = 1 g

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Nutrient Intake by Ultramarathon Runners: Can They Meet Recommendations?

Floris C. Wardenaar, Rianne Dijkhuizen, Ingrid J.M. Ceelen, Emma Jonk, Jeanne H.M. De Vries, Renger F. Witkamp, and Marco Mensink


The objective of this study was to investigate whether ultramarathon runners were able to meet nutrition recommendations during a training period and on a competition day.


In preparation for a 60 or 120 km ultramarathon covering a varied terrain, male and female ultramarathon runners (n = 68, age 46.5 ± 7.1 y) reported habitual dietary intake during three independent days using a web-based 24-hr recall and questionnaires. The diet was assessed using probability of inadequacy or by qualitative evaluation using reference dietary intakes or sports nutrition recommendations. A small group of 120 km runners (n = 4) was observed continuously during the race. After the race, 60 km runners (n = 41) received a questionnaire to assess dietary intake and gastrointestinal (GI) distress on the race day. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) were applied to investigate the association between intake and general GI distress symptoms.


In men and women, habitual mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was lower than recommended, as was mean protein intake by women. CHO intake during the race was <60 g/h in 75% of the athletes. A large variation of nutrient and fluid intake was seen. GI distress during the race was reported in 82% of the runners; severe GI distress was low. In general, moderate, mostly negative, correlations with nutrient intake were seen for GI distress.


Sports nutrition recommendations for the habitual diet were not achieved. During a competition day, a large variation was found in nutrient intake; this may be related to a high incidence of GI distress.

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Fasted Sprint Interval Training Results in Some Beneficial Skeletal Muscle Metabolic, but Similar Metabolomic and Performance Adaptations Compared With Carbohydrate-Fed Training in Recreationally Active Male

Tom P. Aird, Andrew J. Farquharson, Kate M. Bermingham, Aifric O’Sullivan, Janice E. Drew, and Brian P. Carson

diary was completed by participants to characterize individual habitual dietary intakes among study participants prior to the intervention, and participants maintained their habitual dietary intake for the duration of the intervention. Biological Sampling Venous blood samples were collected, prepared

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Jumping Exercise Combined With Collagen Supplementation Preserves Bone Mineral Density in Elite Cyclists

Luuk Hilkens, Nick van Schijndel, Vera C.R. Weijer, Lieselot Decroix, Judith Bons, Luc J.C. van Loon, and Jan-Willem van Dijk

. All testing procedures were conducted in the morning and under the same standardized conditions (i.e., no exercise or alcohol 24 hr before testing). During Weeks 8–10 of the intervention, habitual dietary intake was assessed during two cycling exercise training days using a web-based 24-hr recall

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CYP1A2 Genotype Polymorphism Influences the Effect of Caffeine on Anaerobic Performance in Trained Males

Shahin Minaei, Mohammad Rahman Rahimi, Hemn Mohammadi, Morteza Jourkesh, Richard B. Kreider, Scott C. Forbes, Tacito P. Souza-Junior, Steven R. McAnulty, and Douglas Kalman

to avoid strenuous activity throughout the study, to maintain their habitual dietary intake, and to avoid fatiguing exercise 24 hr prior to experimental days. Following a 10 hr overnight fast, participants arrived at the laboratory and ingested their supplement. The dose of CAF (6 mg/kg) was based on

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Effects of Different Vitamin C–Enriched Collagen Derivatives on Collagen Synthesis

Dana M. Lis and Keith Baar

interventions. This biological variability is likely influenced by differences in habitual dietary intake and possibly body weight ( Daniel, 2004 ; Gómez-Guillén et al., 2011 ; West et al., 2015 ). Habitual meat intake, or polymorphisms, may directly affect the level or activity of peptide transporters

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Presleep Casein Protein Ingestion: Acceleration of Functional Recovery in Professional Soccer Players

William Abbott, Adam Brett, Emma Cockburn, and Tom Clifford

questions, see Shearer et al. 20 Dietary Analysis Participants recorded their habitual dietary intake on the day of each match and in the 2 days following the match (3 d in total) using electronic food diaries. These were subsequently analyzed using the online dietary analysis software (Intake24; Newcastle

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Carbohydrate and Protein Co-Ingestion Postexercise Does Not Improve Next-Day Performance in Trained Cyclists

Hilkka Kontro, Marta Kozior, Gráinne Whelehan, Miryam Amigo-Benavent, Catherine Norton, Brian P. Carson, and Phil Jakeman

trial. Standardization of Dietary Intake and Training Before Trials Prior to the experimental phase, participants were asked to record their habitual dietary intake and training using a 7-day weighed food diary and training log. A registered dietitian and sports and exercise nutritionist prescribed a 3

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Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation, but not Creatyl-L-Leucine, Increased Muscle Creatine Content in Healthy Young Adults: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

Andrew T. Askow, Kevin J.M. Paulussen, Colleen F. McKenna, Amadeo F. Salvador, Susannah E. Scaroni, Jade S. Hamann, Alexander V. Ulanov, Zhong Li, Scott A. Paluska, Kayleigh M. Beaudry, Michael De Lisio, and Nicholas A. Burd

, participants supplemented their habitual dietary intake with either CrM, CLL, or PLA (discussed below) for 2 weeks and completed three supervised resistance exercise sessions per week. A second biopsy was collected following the conclusion of the supplementation period. Figure 1 —Overview of the study protocol