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Lifetime Stressor Exposure and Psychophysiological Reactivity and Habituation to Repeated Acute Social Stressors

Ella McLoughlin, Rachel Arnold, Paul Freeman, James E. Turner, Gareth A. Roberts, David Fletcher, George M. Slavich, and Lee J. Moore

 al., 2021 ). However, maladaptive physiological responses can also occur, characterized by exaggerated or blunted reactivity to an acute stressor or a lack of habituation when this stressor is repeated ( Hughes et al., 2018 ). Along these lines, extreme cardiovascular and cortisol stress responses (i

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Acute Ingestion of Caffeinated Chewing Gum Improves Repeated Sprint Performance of Team Sport Athletes With Low Habitual Caffeine Consumption

Mark Evans, Peter Tierney, Nicola Gray, Greg Hawe, Maria Macken, and Brendan Egan

to the physiological effects of caffeine ( Fredholm, 1982 ; Fredholm et al., 1999 ), suggesting that habitual consumers of caffeine may not benefit from the ergogenic potential of acute ingestion. However, the habituation effect and/or restoration of sensitivity upon withdrawal is not always

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Reduced Glucose Tolerance and Skeletal Muscle GLUT4 and IRS1 Content in Cyclists Habituated to a Long-Term Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet

Christopher C. Webster, Kathryn M. van Boom, Nur Armino, Kate Larmuth, Timothy D. Noakes, James A. Smith, and Tertius A. Kohn

-sectional analysis formed part of a larger study comparing muscle metabolism, substrate oxidation, and endogenous glucose production (EGP) in trained cyclists habituated to an LCHF diet and matched cyclists habituated to a Mixed diet ( Webster et al., 2016 ). For convenience, relevant methods and results from the

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Habituation of Children to Treadmill Walking and Running: Metabolic and Kinematic Criteria

Gail Frost, Oded Bar-Or, James Dowling, and Catherine White

This study examined habituation to treadmill walking or running in children. Twenty-four boys and girls, ages 7–11, completed six 6-min trials of treadmill exercise at one of these speeds: (a) comfortable walking pace (CWP), (b) CWP + 15%, (c) running at CWP + 3 km·hr−1, or (d) running as above + 15%. The six trials were repeated in a second visit. The a priori criterion for habituation was a decrease in steady state values of oxygen uptake (V̇O2), heart rate (HR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and stride rate (SR) or an increase in stride length (SL) and hip joint vertical amplitude (HA) from one trial to the next. There was no consistent pattern indicating habituation for the group. Many trials and more than one day of testing do not appear to improve the stability of the metabolic or kinematic variables. The lack of consistency in individual responses suggests that monitoring subjects’ habituation individually is important.

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Time Course of Habituation After Repeated Ice-Bath Immersion of the Ankle

Mack D. Rubley, William R. Holcomb, and Mark A. Guadagnoli


Cryotherapy is initially uncomfortable, but habituation is thought to occur during treatment.


To examine pain habituation to ice-bath immersion over 5 consecutive days.


Mean Borg ratings were analyzed by ANOVA.


Athletic training laboratory.


Ankle immersion in a 1 °C ice bath for 20 min.


28 healthy individuals.

Main Outcome Measure:

Level of discomfort was rated at immersion; during treatment at 1, 3, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 20 min; and 1 min posttreatment.


Analysis revealed significant main effects for day and time and a Day × Time interaction. Day 1 had higher pain ratings than days 4 and 5. From min 1 to 11 there was a progressive decline in pain rating; after that there was no significant decline.


Discomfort was greatest during the first 5 min, and perception of discomfort at initial immersion was consistent across 5 days. In addition, after 3 days of treatments habituation occurred. Taken together, this suggests that treatment habituation is not the result of change in receptor sensitivity.

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Relationships Between Negative Affect and Academic Achievement Among Secondary School Students: The Mediating Effects of Habituated Exercise

Hairul A. Hashim, Golok Freddy, and Ali Rosmatunisah


The current study was undertaken to examine the associations between self-determination, exercise habit, anxiety, depression, stress, and academic achievement among adolescents aged 13 and 14 years in eastern Malaysia.


The sample consisted of 750 secondary school students (mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 0.49). Participants completed self-report measures of exercise behavioral regulation, negative affect, and exercise habit strength. Midyear exam results were used as an indicator of academic performance. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data.


The results of structural equation modeling revealed a close model fit for the hypothesized model, which indicates that higher levels of self-determination were positively associated with habituated exercise behavior. In turn, exercise habit strength fostered academic achievement and buffered the debilitative effect of stress, depression, and anxiety on student academic performance. The analysis of model invariance revealed a nonsignificant difference between male and female subjects.


The findings support the notion that habituated exercise fosters academic performance. In addition, we found that habituated exercise buffers the combined effects of stress, anxiety and depression on academic performance. The finding also supports the roles of self-determination in promoting exercise habituation.

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Within-Day Accommodation Effects on Vertical Reaction Forces for Treadmill Running

Scott C. White, Louise A. Gilchrist, and Kathryn A. Christina

Prescribing an appropriate adaptation period is an important consideration when using treadmills for locomotion studies. The present study investigated within-trial accommodation to running on a force measuring treadmill. Force measures were derived from vertical reaction force records of 16 runners; 8 were experienced in running on a treadmill. Three dependent measures, the peak impact force (F1), the loading rate of the impact force (LR), and the peak active force (F2) were tested for significant differences (p < 0.05) every 2 minutes of a continuous 20-min run using a two-factor ANOVA (group × time) with one repeated measure (time). Coefficients of variation (CV) for each dependent measure were tested for statistical significance in the same way. There were no significant differences in F1, LR, or F2 over any samples for the 20-min running trials. There were no significant changes in CV values for the duration of the run. The results from the present study suggest that after 30 seconds of treadmill running, there were no significant within-day accommodation effects on vertical force measures over a 20-min treadmill run. Variability between individuals in the consistency of force measures, however, could be a confounding factor. This lack of consistent response for individuals should be considered when exposing participants to experimental designs involving treadmill locomotion.

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Habitual Caffeine Consumption Does Not Interfere With the Acute Caffeine Supplementation Effects on Strength Endurance and Jumping Performance in Trained Individuals

Vitor de Salles Painelli, Emerson L. Teixeira, Bruno Tardone, Marina Moreno, Jonatas Morandini, Victória H. Larrain, and Flávio O. Pires

highlighted that these effects may vary greatly from one exercise mode to another ( Grgic et al., 2020 ). In this regard, one of the factors that have been pointed out to influence the potential of caffeine as an ergogenic aid is the caffeine habituation hypothesis. Early studies with animal models found that

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When It HIITs, You Feel No Pain: Psychological and Psychophysiological Effects of Respite–Active Music in High-Intensity Interval Training

Costas I. Karageorghis, Leighton Jones, Luke W. Howard, Rhys M. Thomas, Panayiotis Moulashis, and Sam J. Santich

10-min recovery period, the participant completed a HIIT habituation session with 4 × 60-s bouts interspersed with 90-s recovery (no music). The workload for the exercise bouts of the HIIT session was 100% W max . The participant was asked to report her/his RPE by use of the CR10 RPE scale ( Borg

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Stiffness Adaptations in Shod Running

Caroline Divert, Heiner Baur, Guillaume Mornieux, Frank Mayer, and Alain Belli

When mechanical parameters of running are measured, runners have to be accustomed to testing conditions. Nevertheless, habituated runners could still show slight evolutions of their patterns at the beginning of each new running bout. This study investigated runners' stiffness adjustments during shoe and barefoot running and stiffness evolutions of shoes. Twenty-two runners performed two 4-minute bouts at 3.61 m·s–1 shod and barefoot after a 4-min warm-up period. Vertical and leg stiffness decreased during the shoe condition but remained stable in the barefoot condition, p < 0.001. Moreover, an impactor test showed that shoe stiffness increased significantly during the first 4 minutes, p < 0.001. Beyond the 4th minute, shoe properties remained stable. Even if runners were accustomed to the testing condition, as running pattern remained stable during barefoot running, they adjusted their leg and vertical stiffness during shoe running. Moreover, as measurements were taken after a 4-min warm-up period, it could be assumed that shoe properties were stable. Then the stiffness adjustment observed during shoe running might be due to further habituations of the runners to the shod condition. To conclude, it makes sense to run at least 4 minutes before taking measurements in order to avoid runners' stiffness alteration due to shoe property modifications. However, runners could still adapt to the shoe.