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Paul W.M. Marshall, Ric Lovell and Jason C. Siegler


Passive muscle tension is increased after damaging eccentric exercise. Hamstring-strain injury is associated with damaging eccentric muscle actions, but no research has examined changes in hamstring passive muscle tension throughout a simulated sport activity. The authors measured hamstring passive tension throughout a 90-min simulated soccer match (SAFT90), including the warm-up period and every 15 min throughout the 90-min simulation.


Passive hamstring tension of 15 amateur male soccer players was measured using the instrumented straight-leg-raise test. Absolute torque (Nm) and slope (Nm/°) of the recorded torque-angular position curve were used for data analysis, in addition to total leg range of motion (ROM). Players performed a 15-min prematch warm-up, then performed the SAFT90 including a 15-min halftime rest period.


Reductions in passive stiffness of 20–50° of passive hip flexion of 22.1−29.2% (P < .05) were observed after the warm-up period. During the SAFT90, passive tension increased in the latter 20% of the range of motion of 10.1−10.9% (P < .05) concomitant to a 4.5% increase in total hamstring ROM (P = .0009).


The findings of this study imply that hamstring passive tension is reduced after an active warm-up that includes dynamic stretching but does not increase in a pattern suggestive of eccentric induced muscle damage during soccer-specific intermittent exercise. Hamstring ROM and passive tension increases are best explained by improved stretch tolerance.

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Thales M. Medeiros, João B. Ribeiro-Alvares, Carolina G. Fritsch, Gabriel S. Oliveira, Lucas Severo-Silveira, Evangelos Pappas and Bruno M. Baroni

Hamstring strain injury (HSI) is the noncontact injury with the highest incidence in football (soccer). 1 A professional team with a 25-player squad typically suffers about 5 to 6 HSIs per season. 2 Even though there is increased awareness about these injuries in recent years, the HSI rates have

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Justin W.Y. Lee, Ming-Jing Cai, Patrick S.H. Yung and Kai-Ming Chan

Hamstring strain injuries (HSI) remain a significant concern in sports, because of the time period the athlete is unable to play the sport and a declined performance for the injured athlete. Due to HSI, 10% to 12% of players have missed training or a game. HSI is accounted for more than one

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Matthew D. DeLang, Mehdi Rouissi, Nicola L. Bragazzi, Karim Chamari and Paul A. Salamh

discrepancies increase the risk of hamstring strain in soccer players, indicating that a normalized strength profile, assessed within 10% of the contralateral limb, 61 – 63 may act as a protective mechanism against such injury risk. Consequently, general prevention programs and return-to-sport criteria would

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Marcus J. Colby, Brian Dawson, Peter Peeling, Jarryd Heasman, Brent Rogalski, Michael K. Drew and Jordan Stares

M . Effect of high-speed running on hamstring strain injury risk . Br J Sports Med . 2016 ; 50 ( 24 ): 1536 – 1540 . PubMed ID: 27288515 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-095679 27288515 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095679 8. Hulin BT , Gabbett TJ , Blanch P , Chapman P , Bailey D , Orchard

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Mostafa Zarei, Hamed Abbasi, Abdolhamid Daneshjoo, Mehdi Gheitasi, Kamran Johari, Oliver Faude, Nikki Rommers and Roland Rössler

reduction in injury rate have been reported. 26 The beneficial effects of hamstring strength on injury reduction could be attributed to the stabilization of the knee joint during running, which is most important at high speeds to prevent hamstring strains. Also isokinetic strength of the hip and ankle

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Billy T. Hulin, Tim J. Gabbett, Nathan J. Pickworth, Rich D. Johnston and David G. Jenkins

AJ , Williams MD , et al . The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League . Br J Sports Med . 2014 ; 48 ( 8 ): 729 – 730 . doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092884 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092884 24124035 3. Gabbett TJ . Debunking the myths about training load

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Helmi Chaabene, Yassine Negra, Jason Moran, Olaf Prieske, Senda Sammoud, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo and Urs Granacher

progressive NHE intervention resulted in a large increase in eccentric hamstrings strength and reduced rates of hamstrings strain in well-trained male soccer players. 12 The increased hamstrings strength has previously been demonstrated to elicit beneficial effects on speed and jumping performances. 10 , 13

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Ryan G. Timmins, Baubak Shamim, Paul J. Tofari, Jack T. Hickey and Donny M. Camera

Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) are the most prevalent, noncontact injury in sports, which involve high-speed running, with more than 80% of these occurring within the biceps femoris long head (BFlh). 1 These injuries also present a significant financial burden for the athlete and their sporting

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Mathieu Lacome, Simon Avrillon, Yannick Cholley, Ben M. Simpson, Gael Guilhem and Martin Buchheit

future hamstring strain injury than those with longer fascicle length. 7 Although more evidences in a wide range of elite sport populations are still missing, this pioneer work demonstrated that both muscle strength and architecture might play a role in hamstring susceptibility to be injured. Although