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Gabriela Fischer, Pedro Figueiredo, and Luca P. Ardigò


To investigate physiological performance determinants of the partial laps and an overall 22-km handbiking (HB) time trial in athletes with high paraplegia.


Seven male HB athletes with spinal cord injury (lesion levels thoracic 2-8) performed a laboratory maximal incremental test under cardiorespiratory-mechanical monitoring including respiratory-exchange ratio (RER), oxygen uptake (V̇O2), and mechanical power output (PO). Individual first and second ventilatory thresholds (V̇O2VT1 and V̇O2VT2), V̇O2peak, and POpeak were posteriorly identified. Athletes also performed a simulated HB time trial along a 4-lap bike circuit under cardiorespiratory measurement. Overall metabolic cost (C) and %V̇O2peak (ratio of V̇O2 to V̇O2peak) were calculated from race data. Race performance was defined as mean race velocity (v).


athletes completed the 22-km HB time trial in 45 ± 6 min, at 29.9 ± 3.6 km/h, with %V̇O2peak = 0.86 ± 0.10 and RER = 1.07 ± 0.17. V̇O2peak (r = .89, P = .01), POpeak (r = .85, P = .02), V̇O2VT1 (r = .96, P = .001), V̇O2VT2 (r = .92, P = .003), and C (2nd lap, r = .78; 3rd lap, r = .80; and 4th lap, r = .80) were significantly (P < .05) positively correlated with race performance. Within-subjects correlation coefficient revealed a large and significant (r = .68, P < .001) relationship between %V̇O2peak and v.


V̇O2peak, POpeak, ventilatory thresholds, %V̇O2peak, and C appeared to be important physiological performance determinants of HB time trial.

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Rafael E.A. Muchaxo, Sonja de Groot, Lucas H.V. van der Woude, Thomas W.J. Janssen, and Carla Nooijen

since 2014 when the sport changed from four to five sport classes ( Union Cycliste Internationale, 2019 ). Currently, athletes in the four first classes (H1–H4) compete in a recumbent position (arm-powered handbikes), whereas those in class H5 compete in a kneeling position (arm–trunk-powered handbike

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Ghazaleh Azizpour, Matteo Lancini, Giovanni Incerti, Paolo Gaffurini, and Giovanni Legnani

transducer, and uses a sensorized handbike (HB) device instead of an industrial robot. HBs are 3-wheeled vehicles that are propelled by upper limbs, and they are primarily used by disabled people with spinal cord injuries or lower limb injuries for urban mobility, rehabilitation, sports, and so forth (Figure

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Jonpaul Nevin, Ingrid Kouwijzer, Ben Stone, Oliver J. Quittmann, Florence Hettinga, Thomas Abel, and Paul M. Smith

collective understanding of the determinants of handcycling performance continues to improve. It is clear that equipment design and the interaction of an athlete with their handbike are of paramount importance and, in this respect, the area of ergonomics is advancing. Furthermore, our understanding as to the

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Ursina Arnet, Stefan van Drongelen, DirkJan Veeger, and Lucas H. V. van der Woude

The aim of the study was to evaluate the external applied forces, the effectiveness of force application and the net shoulder moments of handcycling in comparison with handrim wheelchair propulsion at different inclines. Ten able-bodied men performed standardized exercises on a treadmill at inclines of 1%, 2.5% and 4% with an instrumented handbike and wheelchair that measured three-dimensional propulsion forces. The results showed that during handcycling significantly lower mean forces were applied at inclines of 2.5% (P < .001) and 4% (P < .001) and significantly lower peak forces were applied at all inclines (1%: P = .014, 2.5% and 4%: P < .001). At the 2.5% incline, where power output was the same for both devices, total forces (mean over trial) of 22.8 N and 27.5 N and peak forces of 40.1 N and 106.9 N were measured for handbike and wheelchair propulsion. The force effectiveness did not differ between the devices (P = .757); however, the effectiveness did increase with higher inclines during handcycling whereas it stayed constant over all inclines for wheelchair propulsion. The resulting peak net shoulder moments were lower for handcycling compared with wheelchair propulsion at all inclines (P < .001). These results confirm the assumption that handcycling is physically less straining.

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Jonpaul Nevin and Paul M. Smith

handbike. Since its formal recognition by the International Paralympic Committee in 1999, the popularity of handcycling has increased considerably, as has the scientific interest and the amount of the research conducted, which usually focuses upon optimizing handbike design and/or the physical preparedness

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Jonpaul Nevin and Paul M. Smith

. 4 Handcycling performance is ultimately dependent upon the physical capabilities of the individual, the design of the handbike, and the interaction between the rider and their equipment, typically referred to as the handbike–user interface. 5 While the biomechanics, 5 – 8 handbike–user interface

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Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto, and Andressa da Silva

3 ± 2 hr/week Two visits to laboratory (first = incremental test and VO 2 peak test; second = 20-min exercise tests—50% and 70% of VO 2peak ) TRA VO 2 %VO 2peak HR %HR peak [Lac] RPE HR monitors Lactate Pro handbike Borg scale 6–20 PPO Handbike Barfield et al. ( 2010 ) 9 WR SCI (C6–C7) 12 ± 7 9 ± 6

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Ben T. Stephenson, Sven P. Hoekstra, Keith Tolfrey, and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

paratriathlon competition rules, athletes requiring the use of a wheelchair used a handbike and racing wheelchair for bike and run sections, respectively, whereas PTVI athletes raced with an AB guide and used a tandem bicycle. Ambulant sport categories (PTS2–PTS5) used prostheses or adaptations to bicycles

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Terri Graham-Paulson, Claudio Perret, and Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey

performance-an update . Chronobiology International, 22 , 21 – 44 . PubMed doi:10.1081/CBI-200041039 Fischer , G. , Figueiredo , P. , & Ardigò , L.P. ( 2015 ). Physiological performance determinants of a 22-km handbiking time trial . International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10