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Arnaud Faupin, Philippe Gorce, Eric Watelain, Christophe Meyer and Andre Thevenon

The aim of this study was to investigate muscle activity, kinematic, and handgrip-force pattern generation during handcycling. One able-bodied participant performed a 1-min exercise test on a handcycle at 70 revolutions per minute. This article proposes an original data collection and analysis methodology that gathers synchronized kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography. Such data, which most often appear complex, are easily summarized using this methodology. This preliminary study has an new setup and offers good indications on the biomechanical pattern for handcycling movement analysis.

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Ghazaleh Azizpour, Matteo Lancini, Giovanni Incerti, Paolo Gaffurini and Giovanni Legnani

  1 ). 15 Handcycling improves the patient’s physical activity and fitness level, and promotes an active lifestyle after rehabilitation. Using HBs can also be more efficient and physiologically less straining than handrim wheelchair propulsion. 16 Repetitive forces acting on the upper-extremity, and

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Terri Graham-Paulson, Claudio Perret and Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey

 al., 2014 , 2015 ; Graham-Paulson et al., 2015b , 2016b). Black et al. ( 2015 ) and Graham-Paulson et al. ( 2016b ) reported improvements in leg cycling but not arm cranking/handcycling performance (10-min performance test and 10-km TT, respectively) following the ingestion of 4–5 mg/kg CAF and 30 min at

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Ursina Arnet, Stefan van Drongelen, DirkJan Veeger and Lucas H. V. van der Woude

The aim of the study was to evaluate the external applied forces, the effectiveness of force application and the net shoulder moments of handcycling in comparison with handrim wheelchair propulsion at different inclines. Ten able-bodied men performed standardized exercises on a treadmill at inclines of 1%, 2.5% and 4% with an instrumented handbike and wheelchair that measured three-dimensional propulsion forces. The results showed that during handcycling significantly lower mean forces were applied at inclines of 2.5% (P < .001) and 4% (P < .001) and significantly lower peak forces were applied at all inclines (1%: P = .014, 2.5% and 4%: P < .001). At the 2.5% incline, where power output was the same for both devices, total forces (mean over trial) of 22.8 N and 27.5 N and peak forces of 40.1 N and 106.9 N were measured for handbike and wheelchair propulsion. The force effectiveness did not differ between the devices (P = .757); however, the effectiveness did increase with higher inclines during handcycling whereas it stayed constant over all inclines for wheelchair propulsion. The resulting peak net shoulder moments were lower for handcycling compared with wheelchair propulsion at all inclines (P < .001). These results confirm the assumption that handcycling is physically less straining.

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Julien Jacquier-Bret, Arnaud Faupin, Nasser Rezzoug and Philippe Gorce

The aim of this study was to propose a new index called Postural Force Production Index (PFPI) for evaluating the force production during handcycling. For a given posture, it assesses the force generation capacity in all Cartesian directions by linking the joint configuration to the effective force applied on the handgrips. Its purpose is to give insight into the force pattern of handcycling users, and could be used as ergonomic index. The PFPI is based on the force ellipsoid, which belongs to the class of manipulability indices and represents the overall force production capabilities at the hand in all Cartesian directions from unit joint torques. The kinematics and kinetics of the arm were recorded during a 1-min exercise test on a handcycle at 70 revolutions per minute performed by one paraplegic expert in handcycling. The PFPI values were compared with the Fraction Effective Force (FEF), which is classically associated with the effectiveness of force application. The results showed a correspondence in the propulsion cycle between FEF peaks and the most favorable postures to produce a force tangential to the crank rotation (PFPI). This preliminary study opens a promising way to study patterns of force production in the framework of handcycling movement analysis.

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Floor Morriën, Matthew J. D. Taylor and Florentina J. Hettinga

Purpose:

To provide an overview of biomechanical studies in Paralympic research and their relevance for performance in Paralympic sports.

Methods:

The search terms paralympic biomechanics, paralympic sport performance, paralympic athlete performance, and paralympic athlete were entered into the electronic database PubMed.

Results:

Thirty-four studies were found. Biomechanical studies in Paralympics mainly contributed to performance enhancement by technical optimization (n = 32) and/or injury prevention (n = 6). In addition, biomechanics was found to be important in understanding activity limitation caused by various impairments, which is relevant for evidence-based classification in Paralympic sports (n = 6). Distinctions were made between biomechanical studies in sitting (41%), standing (38%), and swimming athletes (21%). In sitting athletes, mostly kinematics and kinetics in wheelchair propulsion were studied, mainly in athletes with spinal-cord injuries. In addition, kinetics and/or kinematics in wheelchair basketball, seated discus throwing, stationary shot-putting, hand-cycling, sit-skiing, and ice sledge hockey received attention. In standing sports, primarily kinematics of athletes with amputations performing jump sports and running and the optimization of prosthetic devices were investigated. No studies were reported on other standing sports. In swimming, mainly kick rate and resistance training were studied.

Conclusions:

Biomechanical research is important for performance by gaining insight into technical optimization, injury prevention, and evidence-based classification in Paralympic sports. In future studies it is advised to also include physiological and biomechanical measures, allowing the assessment of the capability of the human body, as well as the resulting movement.

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Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto and Andressa da Silva

was used for a full search strategy: (“wheelchair” OR “wheelchair sport” OR “wheelchair sports” OR “handcycle” OR “handcycling” OR “wheelchair basketball” OR “wheelchair curling” OR “wheelchair dance sport” OR “wheelchair fencing” OR “wheelchair rugby” OR “wheelchair tennis” OR “wheelchair handball

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Ben T. Stephenson, Eleanor Hynes, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

) was calculated from sIgA concentration and saliva flow rate. 11 Laboratory Testing and TL Quantification Athletes performed both a cycling/handcycling and running/racing-wheelchair incremental exercise test for the determination of heart rate (HR) associated with aerobic and anaerobic lactate

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Ben T. Stephenson, Sven P. Hoekstra, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

cooling strategies when handcycling for PTWC athletes and when running for ambulant athletes). 12 In addition, athletes should seek strategies to ameliorate thermal strain in races, such as by minimizing fluid losses 22 and adopting an evenly paced race. Event organizers ought to consider medical

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Amy R. Lewis, William S.P. Robertson, Elissa J. Phillips, Paul N. Grimshaw and Marc Portus

Biomech . 2006 ; 39 ( 4 ): 758 – 765 . PubMed ID: 16439246 doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.11.034 16439246 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.11.034 47. Arnet U , van Drongelen S , van der Woude LHV , Veeger DHEJ . Shoulder load during handcycling at different incline and speed conditions . Clin Biomech