The pursuit of happiness is an important human endeavor, and scholars have found that happiness is beneficial in many ways ( Van Boven & Gilovich, 2003 ). For example, relative to unhappy people, happy individuals are more likely to report marital satisfaction and enjoy friendships, tend to live
Wonseok Jang, Yong Jae Ko, Daniel L. Wann, and Daehwan Kim
Tim Woodman, Paul A. Davis, Lew Hardy, Nichola Callow, Ian Glasscock, and Jason Yuill-Proctor
We conducted three experiments to examine the relationships between emotions and subcomponents of performance. Experiment 1 revealed that anger was associated with enhanced gross muscular peak force performance but that happiness did not influence grammatical reasoning performance. Following Lazarus (1991, 2000a), we examined hope rather than happiness in Experiment 2. As hypothesized, hope yielded faster soccer-related reaction times in soccer players. Experiment 3 was an examination of extraversion as a moderator of the anger-performance relationship. When angry, extraverts’ peak force increased more than introverts’. Results are discussed and future research directions are offered in relation to Lazarus’s framework.
Marco Rathschlag and Daniel Memmert
The present study examined the relationship between self-generated emotions and physical performance. All participants took part in five emotion induction conditions (happiness, anger, anxiety, sadness, and an emotion-neutral state) and we investigated their influence on the force of the finger musculature (Experiment 1), the jump height of a counter-movement jump (Experiment 2), and the velocity of a thrown ball (Experiment 3). All experiments showed that participants could produce significantly better physical performances when recalling anger or happiness emotions in contrast to the emotion-neutral state. Experiments 1 and 2 also revealed that physical performance in the anger and the happiness conditions was significantly enhanced compared with the anxiety and the sadness conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the Lazarus (1991a, 2000a) cognitive-motivational-relational (CMR) theory framework.
Jeffrey Martin, Mario Vassallo, Jacklyn Carrico, and Ellen Armstrong
). For instance, determining that personal performance standards such as racing a fast time, irrespective of outcome, is important to athlete’s happiness is knowledge that might help persuade coaches to focus on controllable performance variables and less on uncontrollable goals such as the outcome
Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann, and Yuhei Inoue
examples include studies that show that fans with strong team ID experience greater emotional support from other fans, greater happiness in accordance with their team’s victories, and greater satisfaction with their life ( Inoue et al., 2017 ; Jang et al., 2017 ). The current understanding of team ID
Jane E. Ruseski, Brad R. Humphreys, Kirstin Hallman, Pamela Wicker, and Christoph Breuer
A major policy goal of many ministries of sport and health is increased participation in sport to promote health. A growing literature is emerging about the benefits of sport participation on happiness. A challenge in establishing a link between sport participation and happiness is controlling for endogeneity of sport participation in the happiness equation.
This study seeks to establish causal evidence of a relationship between sport participation and self reported happiness using instrumental variables (IV).
IV estimates based on data from a 2009 population survey living in Rheinberg, Germany indicate that individuals who participate in sport have higher life happiness. The results suggest a U-shaped relationship between age and self-reported happiness. Higher income is associated with greater self-reported happiness, males are less happy than females, and single individuals are less happy than nonsingles.
Since the results are IV, this finding is interpreted as a causal relationship between sport participation and subjective well-being (SWB). This broader impact of sport participation on general happiness lends support to the policy priority of many governments to increase sport participation at all levels of the general population.
James E. Maddux
The notion of habit figures prominently in theories of health-related behavior and in efforts to encourage people to develop consistency and regularity in the healthful behavior of daily life. The consensus definition of habit as automatic and mindless behavior, however, presents three logical and philosophical problems. First, this definition of habit is at odds with the way most of our theories of health behavior try to employ the notion. Second, the behaviors of concern to most health, exercise, and sport psychologists are not the kinds of behaviors to which this definition of habit applies easily, if at all. Third, the kind of mindless behavior suggested by this definition may be conducive to enhancing physical health and athletic performance, but it may be inconsistent with the essential elements of happiness or subjective well-being according to Eastern philosophies such as Taoism and Buddhism, and according to the growing research on the psychology of happiness.
Nicholas Stanger, Ryan Chettle, Jessica Whittle, and Jamie Poolton
-Jones ( 2010 ) posited that high-approach affective states (e.g., anger, excitement) result in attentional narrowing, whereas low-approach affective states (e.g., dejection or sadness, happiness) result in broadening of attentional focus. Specifically, positive high-approach affective states (e.g., excitement
Theresa E. Gildner, J. Josh Snodgrass, Clare Evans, and Paul Kowal
included three commonly used measures of subjective well-being: (a) subjective QOL, (b) self-rated happiness, and (c) reported mood ( Diener et al., 2003 ). These generally relate to two important aspects of psychological well-being: evaluative well-being (or life satisfaction) and hedonic well
Marc V. Jones, Andrew M. Lane, Steven R. Bray, Mark Uphill, and James Catlin
The present paper outlines the development of a sport-specific measure of precompetitive emotion to assess anger, anxiety, dejection, excitement, and happiness. Face, content, factorial, and concurrent validity were examined over four stages. Stage 1 had 264 athletes complete an open-ended questionnaire to identify emotions experienced in sport. The item pool was extended through the inclusion of additional items taken from the literature. In Stage 2 a total of 148 athletes verified the item pool while a separate sample of 49 athletes indicated the extent to which items were representative of the emotions anger, anxiety, dejection, excitement, and happiness. Stage 3 had 518 athletes complete a provisional Sport Emotion Questionnaire (SEQ) before competition. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 22-item and 5-fac-tor structure provided acceptable model fit. Results from Stage 4 supported the criterion validity of the SEQ. The SEQ is proposed as a valid measure of precompetitive emotion for use in sport settings.