The personality construct of hardiness has been introduced as a moderator in the stress-illness relationship. Hardy individuals are thought to alter their appraisal of stress into a less stressful form. Mood disturbances have been found to be a product of intensive physical training. This investigation examines the relationships between hardiness and mood disturbances in swimmers who are overtraining and between hardiness, mood disturbances, and coping behaviors. Swimmers (N=253) from eight universities and seven competitive club programs completed the Cognitive Hardiness Inventory, the Profile of Mood States, the Everly Coping Scale, and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale at the beginning of their competitive season, and at two 7-week intervals. Hardy swimmers experienced fewer mood disturbances during the season than nonhardy swimmers. Specifically, hardy swimmers had lower feelings of tension, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion, and higher feelings of vigor. Hardy swimmers also possessed more adaptive coping behaviors.
Jeffrey J. Martin, Betty Kelley and Robert C. Eklund
The purpose of this investigation was to examine stress and burnout in athletic directors. Using Kelley’s (1994) original model we hypothesized that stress mediated the influence of social support, hardiness, and career issues on burnout. A second model, based on Smith’s (1986) contentions, allowed stress predictors to directly influence burnout in addition to influencing burnout through stress. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses supported the respecified model over Kelley’s (1994) original model. Athletic directors with a tendency to find career issues stressful, and who were low in hardiness, experienced elevated stress and burnout. Specifically, stress predictors had a direct influence on burnout, as well as an indirect influence through stress. Descriptive data classified athletic directors as enduring greater levels of emotional exhaustion than depersonalization and personal accomplishment.
Betty C. Kelley, Robert C. Eklund and Michelle Ritter-Taylor
The purpose of this investigation was to examine stress and burnout among collegiate tennis coaches. Three alternative models of stress-mediated relationships between personal/situational variables (hardiness, coaching issues, competitive level, gender, trait anxiety, initiating and consideration leadership styles) and burnout among men (n = 163) and women (n = 98) collegiate head tennis coaches were examined. Preliminary analysis revealed that the tennis coaches in this investigation were suffering from levels of burnout similar to those of other helping professionals working in higher education (Maslach & Jackson, 1986). A gender-by-competition-level (2 × 2) MANOVA on study variables revealed a significant main effect for gender but not for competition level. The women had a higher tendency than the men did to find coaching issues stressful. Structural equation modeling revealed that the stress-mediation model, also featuring direct effects of personality/dispositional variables on burnout, accounted for observed relationships in data more adequately than the other alternative models did.
Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Christianne M. Eason and Ashley Goodman
departure. Several variables exist to describe coping behaviors, including hardiness and resiliency. 25 These concepts are linked specifically to emotion, and how an individual is able to recover and manage stressful situations. Stability of emotion is often linked to these personal variables, with the
Jeffrey J. Martin, Brigid Byrd, Michele Lewis Watts and Maana Dent
The purpose of the current study was to predict both general and sport-specific quality of life using measures of grit, hardiness, and resilience. Seventy-five adults (74 men, 1 woman) who are wheelchair basketball athletes participated in the current study. Twenty-six percent of the variance in life satisfaction was accounted for. Both hardiness and resilience accounted for meaningful variance, as indicated by their significant beta weights. Twenty-two percent of the variance in sport engagement was predicted; resilience and grit accounted for meaningful variance, as indicated by their significant beta weight. The regression results indicate that athletes reporting the highest levels of grit and resilience tended to also be the most engaged in their sport, and athletes with high levels of hardiness and resilience reported the highest quality of life. The descriptive results support an affirmation model of disability for the current sample of wheelchair athletes in that they reported moderate to strong levels of resiliency, grit, hardiness, sport engagement, and a high quality of life.
Leilani Madrigal and Diane L. Gill
Using the Integrated Model of Response to Sport Injury as a theoretical framework, athletes’ psychological strengths and emotional responses were explored throughout the injury process using a case study approach. Four Division I athletes completed measures of mental toughness, hardiness, and optimism before their season (time 1), once they became injured (time 2), midway through rehabilitation (time 3), and when they were cleared to participate (time 4). Coping behavior, psychological response, and rehabilitation adherence were recorded at time 2–time 4, while recovering. In addition, interviews were conducted after time 4. Mental toughness, hardiness, and optimism varied over time and across cases, with broad individual differences in response to injury. Athletes experienced a loss of athletic identity combined with feelings of guilt and helplessness over the initial stages of injury, but positive experiences were also found. All cases also reported playing through injury. Understanding the psychological strengths and responses of athletes can help professionals work with injured athletes.
Jeffrey Martin, Betty Kelley and Candice Dias
In the current study we examined the relationships between stress predictors, stress, and burnout in female high school athletic directors (N = 52). Significant negative correlations between stress and hardiness and between stress and number of social support providers were found. Significant positive correlations between stress and time concerns, personnel concerns, and program success (e.g., winning) subscales of the athletic directing issues scale were also found. Subjects high in hardiness and with adequate social support networks, who also reported few athletic directing issues, were likely to report minimal stress. Significant positive correlations also indicated that stress was related to the burnout dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Based on our results we supported and extended Kelley’s (1993; 1994) model of stress and burnout with a population of female athletic directors.
Leilani Madrigal, Katherine Wurst and Diane L. Gill
In this study, we explored mental toughness, injury response, and coping among female athletes in roller derby (n = 68) and collegiate rugby (n = 122). Participants completed a survey with measures of mental toughness, hardiness, optimism, coping with injury and psychological response to injury, as well as questions regarding injury status. Injured roller derby players had a more negative response to injury than injured rugby players, but did not differ on mental toughness. Mental toughness was related to approach styles of coping and negatively related to adverse psychological responses to injury. Rugby players who would play through injury reported higher mental toughness than those who would not play through injury; however, the reverse was found for roller derby players. Mental toughness is related to adaptive coping and positive injury response, but also to engaging in activity when injured, with potential detrimental effects.
Research Psychological Features of Female Runners Presenting with Pathological Weight Control Behaviors Renée M. Parker * Michael J. Lambert Gary M. Burlingame 6 1994 16 2 119 134 10.1123/jsep.16.2.119 Hardiness and Mood Disturbances in Swimmers while Overtraining Judy D. Goss * 6 1994 16 2
Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Celina Shirazipour and Krystn Orr
participation and psychological constructs of grit, hardiness, resiliency, perfectionism, and sensation seeking to training, performance, and quality of life. Part 3 shifts gears slightly through its broad focus on physical activity participation (i.e., lifestyle physical activity, structured exercise, and