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Eric M. Martin and Thelma S. Horn

This study examined whether adolescent athletes’ levels of sport burnout would be predicted by their level and type of both passion and athletic identity. Female high-school-aged athletes (N = 186) completed a series of questionnaires to measure study variables. The results of three hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that athletes’ levels of harmonious passion served as negative predictors for all three dimensions of burnout, while obsessive passion positively predicted scores only on the exhaustion subscale. In addition, the subdimensions of athletic identity contributed a unique amount to the prediction of some aspects of burnout. These results indicate that both passion and athletic identity are important correlates or predictors of burnout levels, with harmonious passion offering the most protective effects.

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Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Patrick Gaudreau and Peter R.E. Crocker

This study examined the relationship between harmonious and obsessive passion and coping, and assessed whether coping mediated the relationship between passion types and changes in burnout and goal attainment. College- and university-level volleyball players (N = 421) completed measures of passion, coping, burnout, and goal attainment at the start and end of a season. Results of structural equation modeling, using a true latent change approach, supported a model whereby types of passion were indirectly related to changes in burnout and goal attainment via coping. Harmonious passion was positively related to task-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively associated with change in goal attainment. Obsessive passion was positively associated with disengagement-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively and negatively associated with changes in burnout and goal attainment, respectively. This study identifies coping as a reason why passionate athletes may experience changes in burnout and goal attainment over the course of a season.

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Robert J. Vallerand, François L. Rousseau, Frédérick M.E. Grouzet, Alexandre Dumais, Simon Grenier and Céline M. Blanchard

Based on the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003), a sequence involving the determinants and affective experiences associated with two types of passion (harmonious and obsessive) toward sport was proposed and tested. This sequence posits that high levels of sport valuation and an autonomous personality orientation lead to harmonious passion, whereas high levels of sport valuation and a controlled personality orientation facilitate obsessive passion. In turn, harmonious passion is expected to lead to positive affective experiences in sport but to be either negatively related or unrelated to negative affective experiences. Conversely, obsessive passion is hypothesized to be positively related to negative affective experiences in sport but to be either negatively related or unrelated to positive affective experiences. Results of three studies conducted with recreational and competitive athletes involved in individual and team sports provided support for the proposed integrative sequence. These findings support the role of passion in sport and pave the way to new research.

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Frederick L. Philippe, Robert J. Vallerand, Joéline Andrianarisoa and Philippe Brunel

The present research examined in two studies the role of passion for refereeing in referees' affective and cognitive functioning during games. In line with past research on the dualistic model of passion (Vallerand et al., 2003), Study 1 (n 1 = 90 and n 2 = 148) revealed that harmonious passion (HP) for refereeing was positively associated with positive emotions and the experience of flow during games. Conversely, obsessive passion (OP) for refereeing was unrelated to positive emotions and flow, but was positively associated with negative emotional experiences during games. Study 2 (n = 227) examined referees' affective and cognitive functioning after having committed an important mistake. Results showed that HP was negatively associated with maladaptive affective and cognitive functioning after a bad call, whereas OP was positively associated with such maladaptive functioning, including subsequent poor decision making. In addition, in both studies, most referees reported to be passionate toward refereeing. Finally, results from both studies remained the same after controlling for referees' gender, age, years of experience, and types of sports.

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Sofie Kent, Kieran Kingston and Kyle F. Paradis

activities (e.g., sport). Rooted in self-determination theory ( Deci & Ryan, 2000a ), the DMP states that passion can be categorized as two distinct but related forms ( Harmonious and Obsessive ). Harmonious passion is derived from an autonomous internalization of values and beliefs through which the

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Jérémie Verner-Filion, Benjamin J. I. Schellenberg, Maylys Rapaport, Jocelyn J. Bélanger and Robert J. Vallerand

favorite activities. However, as proposed by the dualistic model of passion ( Vallerand, 2015 ; Vallerand et al., 2003 ), it is critical to distinguish between two forms of passion. Harmonious passion (HP) emerges when an activity that one loves has been autonomously internalized into a person’s identity

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

could influence how coaches interact with athletes is their own coaching passion. Researchers in this study hypothesized that if coaches had harmonious passion toward their profession, they would be more autonomy supportive, whereas if they held obsessive passion, they would behave in a more controlling

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Roy David Samuel

) and harmonious passion, referees may develop extrinsic motivation (e.g., status, salary) and potentially obsessive passion. The social demand was related to two aspects. First, the referees were becoming more publicly known figures. They had to adjust to becoming more recognizable and to attracting

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Peter Olusoga, Marte Bentzen and Goran Kentta

’ obsessive passion was associated with their use of ruminative thoughts, which, in turn, was predictive of emotional exhaustion. Moreover, harmonious passion was thought to prevent rumination and, thus, indirectly protect coaches from experiencing emotional exhaustion. Several recent studies have used the

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Daniel Birrer

, R. , Ratelle , C. , Leonard , M. , . . . Marsolais , J. ( 2003 ). Les passions de l’Ame: On obsessive and harmonious passion . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85 ( 4 ), 756 – 767 . PubMed ID: 14561128 doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.4.756 10.1037/0022-3514.85.4.756 World Health