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Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Jérémie Verner-Filion, Patrick Gaudreau, and Sophia Mbabaali

et al., 2015 ; Vallerand & Verner-Filion, 2020 ). This research has relied extensively on the dualistic model of passion (DMP; Vallerand, 2015 ), and has revealed that, to assess the effects of passion on athletes, it is critical to distinguish between two passion dimensions: harmonious passion

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Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Jérémie Verner-Filion, and Patrick Gaudreau

experience ( Bryant & Veroff, 2007 ). But athletes likely vary in the extent to which they savor the good things that happen in their sport. Research in other areas has found that people who pursue meaningful activities with high levels of harmonious passion (HP) engage in greater levels of savoring, whereas

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Anna Sverdlik, Robert J. Vallerand, Ariane St-Louis, Michael Sam Tion, and Geneviève Porlier

to make such a temporal analysis, in an attempt to produce more favorable performance. However, as has been shown in much sport research (e.g.,  Vallerand & Verner-Filion, 2013b ), not all passions are created equal, and one type of passion—harmonious passion (HP)—has been found to be more adaptive

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Eric M. Martin and Thelma S. Horn

This study examined whether adolescent athletes’ levels of sport burnout would be predicted by their level and type of both passion and athletic identity. Female high-school-aged athletes (N = 186) completed a series of questionnaires to measure study variables. The results of three hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that athletes’ levels of harmonious passion served as negative predictors for all three dimensions of burnout, while obsessive passion positively predicted scores only on the exhaustion subscale. In addition, the subdimensions of athletic identity contributed a unique amount to the prediction of some aspects of burnout. These results indicate that both passion and athletic identity are important correlates or predictors of burnout levels, with harmonious passion offering the most protective effects.

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Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Patrick Gaudreau, and Peter R.E. Crocker

This study examined the relationship between harmonious and obsessive passion and coping, and assessed whether coping mediated the relationship between passion types and changes in burnout and goal attainment. College- and university-level volleyball players (N = 421) completed measures of passion, coping, burnout, and goal attainment at the start and end of a season. Results of structural equation modeling, using a true latent change approach, supported a model whereby types of passion were indirectly related to changes in burnout and goal attainment via coping. Harmonious passion was positively related to task-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively associated with change in goal attainment. Obsessive passion was positively associated with disengagement-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively and negatively associated with changes in burnout and goal attainment, respectively. This study identifies coping as a reason why passionate athletes may experience changes in burnout and goal attainment over the course of a season.

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Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Jérémie Verner-Filion, and Patrick Gaudreau

that comes in two varieties. The first, harmonious passion (HP) emerges when an activity is pursued because of its inherent qualities (e.g., a person simply enjoys the activity) and entails engaging in a meaningful activity with a sense of control and personal volition. This way of engaging in an

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Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg and Jérémie Verner-Filion

model, however, makes a critical distinction between two passion varieties: harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP). HP emerges when an activity is loved and autonomously internalized into a person’s identity. This results in the activity being pursued in a flexible manner with a sense of

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Robert J. Vallerand, François L. Rousseau, Frédérick M.E. Grouzet, Alexandre Dumais, Simon Grenier, and Céline M. Blanchard

Based on the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003), a sequence involving the determinants and affective experiences associated with two types of passion (harmonious and obsessive) toward sport was proposed and tested. This sequence posits that high levels of sport valuation and an autonomous personality orientation lead to harmonious passion, whereas high levels of sport valuation and a controlled personality orientation facilitate obsessive passion. In turn, harmonious passion is expected to lead to positive affective experiences in sport but to be either negatively related or unrelated to negative affective experiences. Conversely, obsessive passion is hypothesized to be positively related to negative affective experiences in sport but to be either negatively related or unrelated to positive affective experiences. Results of three studies conducted with recreational and competitive athletes involved in individual and team sports provided support for the proposed integrative sequence. These findings support the role of passion in sport and pave the way to new research.

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Frederick L. Philippe, Robert J. Vallerand, Joéline Andrianarisoa, and Philippe Brunel

The present research examined in two studies the role of passion for refereeing in referees' affective and cognitive functioning during games. In line with past research on the dualistic model of passion (Vallerand et al., 2003), Study 1 (n 1 = 90 and n 2 = 148) revealed that harmonious passion (HP) for refereeing was positively associated with positive emotions and the experience of flow during games. Conversely, obsessive passion (OP) for refereeing was unrelated to positive emotions and flow, but was positively associated with negative emotional experiences during games. Study 2 (n = 227) examined referees' affective and cognitive functioning after having committed an important mistake. Results showed that HP was negatively associated with maladaptive affective and cognitive functioning after a bad call, whereas OP was positively associated with such maladaptive functioning, including subsequent poor decision making. In addition, in both studies, most referees reported to be passionate toward refereeing. Finally, results from both studies remained the same after controlling for referees' gender, age, years of experience, and types of sports.

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Sofie Kent, Kieran Kingston, and Kyle F. Paradis

activities (e.g., sport). Rooted in self-determination theory ( Deci & Ryan, 2000a ), the DMP states that passion can be categorized as two distinct but related forms ( Harmonious and Obsessive ). Harmonious passion is derived from an autonomous internalization of values and beliefs through which the