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Stein G.P. Menting, Marco J. Konings, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser and Florentina J. Hettinga

The distribution of energy over a race (ie, pacing) has proven to be a decisive factor in athlete performance in both time trials 1 , 2 and head-to-head competitions. 3 – 5 Several modeling and experimental studies have found that there is a multitude of factors that influence the pacing process

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

days in 1-day races, 1-week tour races, and 3-week tour races. 17 Similarly, elite short-track speed skaters typically skate multiple races a day for 3 days in a row during a competition weekend. To perform optimally in head-to-head competitions, one is required to balance the optimal distribution of

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

importance of the interaction between the exerciser and environmental cues has been emphasized, in particular in the context of decision making and pacing in head-to-head competition. 2 , 4 Perceptual affordances provided by the environment can invite athletes to respond, thereby evoking in-race adaptations

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Lisa Dawn Hamilton, Sari M. van Anders, David N. Cox and Neil V. Watson

The association between androgens and competition in women has been understudied compared with men. The current study examined the link between testosterone (T) and competition in elite female athletes, using a sample of female wrestlers that included athletes competing at both the national and international level. In a repeated-measures design, saliva samples were collected before and after wrestling bouts, with comparable samples of wins and losses, and subsequently analyzed for T. Study results showed a 22% increase in circulating bioavailable T from pre-to postbout, F(1, 12) = 9.71, P = .009. There was no significant difference in T between win or loss outcomes. These findings—showing a link between individual head-to-head competition and T in women—demonstrate that women’s androgenic responses to environmental contexts are dynamic and may be an important factor to address in research on competitive performance.

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

-track speed skating the final classification is based on the finishing times of all skaters, in short-track speed skating, a head-to-head competition structure is used in which the skaters have to qualify for the next stage of the competition until the final. In this respect, the relatively high variability

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Marco J. Konings, Jordan Parkinson, Inge Zijdewind and Florentina J. Hettinga

attentional focus from external to internal factors. 24 If the “competitor” was not visible during the trial, even the prospect of a monetary incentive ($100) did not lead to an improvement in 1500-m cycling performance. 25 The improvements during a 2-km head-to-head competition with a virtual opponent were

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Everton C. do Carmo, Renato Barroso, Andrew Renfree, Natalia R. da Silva, Saulo Gil and Valmor Tricoli

exercise intensity in head-to-head competition . Front Physiol . 2017 ; 8 : 118 . PubMed ID: 28293199 10.3389/fphys.2017.00118 28293199

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Tyler J. Noble and Robert F. Chapman

African marathoners have dominated their non-African counterparts in recent years, in terms of both performance times and head-to-head competition. For example, the men’s marathon world record has fallen nearly 2.5 minutes since 2003 across 6 record-breaking performances, all by athletes with

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Luca Filipas, Emiliano Nerli Ballati, Matteo Bonato, Antonio La Torre and Maria Francesca Piacentini

women’s competitions already seen for other distances allows female athletes seeking WRs to choose a more favorable pacing strategy, whereas men are more challenged by head-to-head competitions. In the mile, for example, the women’s WR was achieved by a 12.2-second margin on the second competitor

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Luis Rodriguez and Santiago Veiga

the fastest possible time and/or velocity, 10 athletes must be aware of some intrinsic factors, such as physical capacities, to anticipate the metabolic demands of the effort in relation to their actual metabolic capacity. 10 By contrast, in head-to-head competitions, rewards are based on finishing