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Kayla M. Baker, Sean Healy, David J. Rice and Jeanette M. Garcia

, which may lead to a greater awareness of body image and weight-related behaviors, such as dieting, that may actually decrease PA levels. 15 , 16 Although research has shown that having a strong social support system, such as close friends, may help to decrease negative health behaviors, 17 , 18

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João Martins, Adilson Marques, Nuno Loureiro, Francisco Carreiro da Costa, José Diniz and Margarida Gaspar de Matos

 = 1138), 18 (n = 17), and 19 (n = 2) years were not included in the present study and respective analyses. The HBSC is a school-based survey of adolescents’ health behaviors conducted every 4 years. The purpose of the HBSC is to gain an understanding of young peoples’ health and well-being to inform the

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Kara L. Gavin, Julian Wolfson, Mark Pereira, Nancy Sherwood and Jennifer A. Linde

health outcomes. However, this method also has the potential to offer a unique and innovative way to explore the effects of health behaviors that may act as both mediators and moderators of health outcomes. A 4-way decomposition model to assess mediation and moderation, developed by VanderWeele 21 was

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Robert W. Motl and Rachel Bollaert

example of sedentary behavior, is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality, independent of physical activity ( Biswas et al., 2015 ). Sedentary behavior reflects a health-behavior target on the other, or nonexercise, end of the activity continuum and a large opportunity for effecting

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Robert Fields, Andrew T. Kaczynski, Melissa Bopp and Elizabeth Fallon

Background:

Few studies of the built environment and physical activity or other health behaviors have examined minority populations specifically. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the built environment and multiple health behaviors and outcomes among Hispanic adults.

Methods:

Community partners distributed surveys (n = 189) in 3 communities in southwest Kansas. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between neighborhood perceptions and 4 outcomes.

Results:

Meeting physical activity recommendations was associated with the presence of sidewalks and a safe park, and inversely related to higher crime. Residential density and shops nearby were related to active commuting. Sedentary behavior was inversely related to having a bus stop, bike facilities, safe park, interesting things to look at, and seeing people active. Finally, seeing people active was positively associated with being overweight.

Conclusions:

This study suggests that among Hispanics, many built environment variables are related to health behaviors and should be targets for future neighborhood change efforts and research.

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Pamela Hodges Kulinna

This paper on school-based physical activity and health behaviors among adolescent students is grounded in the public health literature, various psychosocial theories, and the coordinated school health ecology model. I address three areas: 1) psychosocial influences on youth physical activity patterns, 2) youth physical activity patterns, and 3) comprehensive school health programming (healthy and active schools). I provide an overview and illustrative examples for each section from my own work.

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Vicki Ebbeck, Patti Lou Watkins and Susan S. Levy

This study examined possible determinants of some of the health behaviors of larger women. Specifically, it was of interest to discern if affect (depression, social physique anxiety) mediated the relationship between self-conceptions (global self-worth, perceived physical appearance) and behavior (disordered eating, physical activity). The investigation was grounded in the model of self-worth forwarded by Harter (1987). A total of 71 overweight or obese women agreed to participate in the study. Data collection involved a researcher meeting individually with each of the participants to record physical assessments as well as responses to a packet of self-report questionnaires. A series of canonical correlation analyses were then conducted to test each of the three conditions for mediation effects outlined by Baron and Kenny (1986). Results suggested that indeed the set of self-conceptions indirectly influenced the set of behaviors via the set of affect variables. Surprisingly, however, involvement in physical activity failed to contribute to the multivariate relationships. The findings further our understanding of how self-conceptions are related to behavior and highlight the value of examining multiple health behaviors in parallel.

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Genevieve F. Dunton, Michael Cousineau and Kim D. Reynolds

Background:

Policy strategies aimed at modifying aspects of the social, physical, economic, and educational environments have been proposed as potential solutions to the growing problem of physical inactivity. To develop effective physical activity policies in these and other areas, greater understanding of how and why policies successfully impact behavior change is needed.

Methods:

The current paper proposes a conceptual framework explaining how policy strategies map onto health behavior theoretical variables and processes thought to lead to physical activity change. This framework is used to make hypotheses about the potential effectiveness of different policy strategies.

Results:

Health behavior theories suggest that policies providing information may be particularly useful for individuals who are not yet considering or have only recently begun to consider becoming more physically active. Policies that provide opportunities may be less effective for individuals who do not find physical activity to be inherently fun and interesting. Policies that offer incentives or require the behavior may not be particularly useful at promoting long-term changes in physical activity.

Conclusion:

Exploring possible connections between policy strategies and theoretical constructs can help to clarify how each approach might work and for whom it may be the most appropriate to implement.

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Clemens Drenowatz, Olivia Wartha, Jochen Klenk, Susanne Brandstetter, Martin Wabitsch and Jürgen Steinacker

This study examined the association between biological maturity, CVD risk, fitness and health behavior in 709 (359 male, 350 female) 8-year-old children (range: 6.3–8.9 years). Sports participation and sedentary behavior was assessed via parent questionnaire. Height and weight was measured and maturity status was predicted based on % of adult-height reached. Fitness was assessed via a test battery and CVD risk was determined using mean arterial pressure, cholesterol and intra-abdominal fat. BMIpercentiles (BMIPCT) differed significantly among early, average and late maturing children. Early maturing children displayed a higher CVD risk profile (0.5 vs. -0.2), lower fitness scores (-0.4 vs. 0.2), and spent more time watching TV (51 vs. 43 min/day) compared with their peers. After controlling for BMIPCT differences remained only for fitness in boys and TV time in girls.

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Audie A. Atienza, Brian Oliveira, B.J. Fogg and Abby C. King

This pilot investigation used portable electronic diaries to assess the physical activity and other health behaviors of 20 adults age 50+ (mean age = 61 years). Study aims were to examine whether computerized cognitive-behavioral strategies could increase adherence to the assessments, the acceptability of electronic diaries to assess everyday health, and the relationship between computerized physical activity assessments with a standardized physical activity measure. Although approximately two thirds of participants had never used an electronic diary, results indicated that a large majority (83%) reported enjoying the use of the electronic diaries, and most (72%) reported enjoying answering all of the health questions. The cognitive-behavioral strategies employed did not enhance assessment adherence, but electronic-diary-based activity levels corresponded more strongly with the poststudy standardized activity measure than the baseline standardized measure, providing evidence of temporal convergence. Findings suggest that the use of portable electronic technology in physical activity assessment of middle-aged and older adults deserves further study.