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Kayla M. Baker, Sean Healy, David J. Rice and Jeanette M. Garcia

, which may lead to a greater awareness of body image and weight-related behaviors, such as dieting, that may actually decrease PA levels. 15 , 16 Although research has shown that having a strong social support system, such as close friends, may help to decrease negative health behaviors, 17 , 18

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Kara L. Gavin, Julian Wolfson, Mark Pereira, Nancy Sherwood and Jennifer A. Linde

health outcomes. However, this method also has the potential to offer a unique and innovative way to explore the effects of health behaviors that may act as both mediators and moderators of health outcomes. A 4-way decomposition model to assess mediation and moderation, developed by VanderWeele 21 was

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Robert W. Motl and Rachel Bollaert

example of sedentary behavior, is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality, independent of physical activity ( Biswas et al., 2015 ). Sedentary behavior reflects a health-behavior target on the other, or nonexercise, end of the activity continuum and a large opportunity for effecting

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Sasha A. Fleary, Robin Mehl and Claudio Nigg

Today’s youth are predicted to live shorter lives than their parents due to chronic disease risk. 1 , 2 Health behaviors in childhood and adolescence are strongly related to those in adulthood. 3 – 5 Lifestyle behaviors such as low physical activity (PA) and low fruit and vegetable consumption

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Stephanie A. Hooker, Laura B. Oswald, Kathryn J. Reid and Kelly G. Baron

, and mortality. Evidence suggests that sleep is also associated with body composition, with both short and long sleep duration associated with greater likelihood of obesity. 4 Most of the research targeting these health behaviors focuses on the average engagement in behaviors over time. Although

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Robert Fields, Andrew T. Kaczynski, Melissa Bopp and Elizabeth Fallon

Background:

Few studies of the built environment and physical activity or other health behaviors have examined minority populations specifically. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the built environment and multiple health behaviors and outcomes among Hispanic adults.

Methods:

Community partners distributed surveys (n = 189) in 3 communities in southwest Kansas. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between neighborhood perceptions and 4 outcomes.

Results:

Meeting physical activity recommendations was associated with the presence of sidewalks and a safe park, and inversely related to higher crime. Residential density and shops nearby were related to active commuting. Sedentary behavior was inversely related to having a bus stop, bike facilities, safe park, interesting things to look at, and seeing people active. Finally, seeing people active was positively associated with being overweight.

Conclusions:

This study suggests that among Hispanics, many built environment variables are related to health behaviors and should be targets for future neighborhood change efforts and research.

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Sofiya Alhassan, Christine W. St. Laurent, Sarah Burkart, Cory J. Greever and Matthew N. Ahmadi

Obesity-related health behaviors (ORHBs) have been identified as risk factors for increased unhealthy weight gain in preschoolers (2.9–5 y). 1 – 3 ORHBs include low physical activity (PA), obesogenic dietary intake patterns (lower fruit and vegetable consumption, greater consumption of energy

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Pamela Hodges Kulinna

This paper on school-based physical activity and health behaviors among adolescent students is grounded in the public health literature, various psychosocial theories, and the coordinated school health ecology model. I address three areas: 1) psychosocial influences on youth physical activity patterns, 2) youth physical activity patterns, and 3) comprehensive school health programming (healthy and active schools). I provide an overview and illustrative examples for each section from my own work.

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Vicki Ebbeck, Patti Lou Watkins and Susan S. Levy

This study examined possible determinants of some of the health behaviors of larger women. Specifically, it was of interest to discern if affect (depression, social physique anxiety) mediated the relationship between self-conceptions (global self-worth, perceived physical appearance) and behavior (disordered eating, physical activity). The investigation was grounded in the model of self-worth forwarded by Harter (1987). A total of 71 overweight or obese women agreed to participate in the study. Data collection involved a researcher meeting individually with each of the participants to record physical assessments as well as responses to a packet of self-report questionnaires. A series of canonical correlation analyses were then conducted to test each of the three conditions for mediation effects outlined by Baron and Kenny (1986). Results suggested that indeed the set of self-conceptions indirectly influenced the set of behaviors via the set of affect variables. Surprisingly, however, involvement in physical activity failed to contribute to the multivariate relationships. The findings further our understanding of how self-conceptions are related to behavior and highlight the value of examining multiple health behaviors in parallel.

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Genevieve F. Dunton, Michael Cousineau and Kim D. Reynolds

Background:

Policy strategies aimed at modifying aspects of the social, physical, economic, and educational environments have been proposed as potential solutions to the growing problem of physical inactivity. To develop effective physical activity policies in these and other areas, greater understanding of how and why policies successfully impact behavior change is needed.

Methods:

The current paper proposes a conceptual framework explaining how policy strategies map onto health behavior theoretical variables and processes thought to lead to physical activity change. This framework is used to make hypotheses about the potential effectiveness of different policy strategies.

Results:

Health behavior theories suggest that policies providing information may be particularly useful for individuals who are not yet considering or have only recently begun to consider becoming more physically active. Policies that provide opportunities may be less effective for individuals who do not find physical activity to be inherently fun and interesting. Policies that offer incentives or require the behavior may not be particularly useful at promoting long-term changes in physical activity.

Conclusion:

Exploring possible connections between policy strategies and theoretical constructs can help to clarify how each approach might work and for whom it may be the most appropriate to implement.