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André O. Werneck, Edilson S. Cyrino, Paul J. Collings, Enio R.V. Ronque, Célia L. Szwarcwald, Luís B. Sardinha and Danilo R. Silva

indicative of high salt intake). Full descriptions of the exact survey questions are published in the Brazilian National Health Survey report. 9 Statistical Analysis Descriptive analyses incorporating proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the sample. For the main analyses, crude and

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Adrienne Brown and Mohammad Siahpush

Background:

Regular physical activity reduces the risk of a number of diseases, prevents obesity, and has positive psychological effects. Approximately one-third of the Australian population has been reported as totally sedentary. We investigated socioeconomic predictors of being sedentary in a nationally representative sample of Australian adults.

Methods:

We analyzed data from 8643 females and 7600 males who responded to the 2001 National Health Survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association of being sedentary with a range of socioeconomic measures.

Results:

Adjusting for demographics, body-mass index, and smoking, we found that low socioeconomic status, indicated by low education level, blue-collar occupation, low income and area social disadvantage, increased the probability that people were sedentary.

Conclusions:

This research highlights that targeting people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds with strategies to increase participation in physical activity may reduce morbidity and mortality associated with being sedentary.

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Steven Allender, Charles Foster and Anna Boxer

Background:

This article aims to examine the relative contribution of occupational activity to English adults’ meeting of government recommendations for physical activity (PA).

Methods:

Data were extracted from a cross-sectional survey of householders in the UK via the Health Survey for England.1 In total, 14,018 adult participants were included in the analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the odds of achieving PA recommendations with and without including occupational activity and to examine the contribution of gender and social and demographic characteristics.

Results:

When occupational PA was included, 36% of men and 25% of women were active at the recommended level. Once occupational PA was removed, these proportions were 23% and 19%, respectively. These results were socially patterned, most notably by age and gender.

Conclusions:

Occupational PA provides a substantial contribution to those meeting the government target for PA.

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Marilyn A. Roth and Jennifer S. Mindell

Background:

Use of objective physical activity measures is rising. We investigated the representativeness of survey participants who wore an accelerometer.

Methods:

4273 adults aged 16+ from a cross-sectional survey of a random, nationally representative general population sample in England in 2008 were categorized as 1) provided sufficient accelerometry data [4−7 valid days (10+ hrs/d), n = 1724], 2) less than that (n = 237), or 3) declined (n = 302). Multinomial logistic regression identified demographic, socioeconomic, health, lifestyle, and biological correlates of participants in these latter 2 groups, compared with those who provided sufficient accelerometry data (4+ valid days).

Results:

Those in the random subsample offered the accelerometer were older and more likely to be retired and to report having a longstanding limiting illness than the rest of the adult Health Survey for England participants. Compared with those providing sufficient accelerometery data, those wearing the accelerometer less were younger, less likely to be in paid employment, and more likely to be a current smoker. Those who declined to wear an accelerometer did not differ significantly from those who wore it for sufficient time.

Conclusions:

We found response bias in wearing the accelerometers for sufficient time, but refusers did not differ from those providing sufficient data. Differences should be acknowledged by data users.

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Dusa Marn-Vukadinovic and Helena Jamnik

Context:

Valid patient-based outcome instruments are necessary for comprehensive patient care that focuses on all aspects of health, from impairments to participation restrictions.

Objective:

To validate the Slovenian translation of Medical Outcome Survey (MOS) Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and to assess relations among various knee measurements, activity tested with Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and health-related quality of life as estimated with SF-36 domains.

Design:

Descriptive validation study.

Setting:

Isokinetic laboratory in outpatient rehabilitation unit.

Participants:

101 subjects after unilateral sport knee injury.

Interventions:

All subjects completed the SF-36 and OKS, and isokinetic knee-muscle strength output at 60°/s was determined in 78 participants. Within a 3-d period, 43 subjects completed the SF-36 and OKS questionnaires again.

Main Outcome Measures:

Reliability testing included internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Correlations between SF-36 subscales and OKS were calculated to assess construct validity, and correlation between SF-36 subscales and muscle strength was calculated to assess concurrent validity.

Results:

Chronbach α was above .78 for all SF-36 subscales. ICCs ranged from .80 to .93. The correlation between OKS and the physical-functioning subscale, showing convergent construct validity, was higher (r = .83, P < .01) than between OKS and mental health (r = .50, P < .01), showing divergent construct validity. Knee-extensor weakness negatively correlated with physical-functioning (r = −.59, P < .01) and social-functioning (r = −.43, P < .01) subscales.

Conclusions:

The Slovenian translation of the SF-36 is a reliable and valuable tool. The relationships between knee-muscle strength and activity and between knee-muscle strength and SF-36 subscales in patients after sport knee injury were established.

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Dahai Yu, Ying Chen, Tao Chen, Yamei Cai, Rui Qin, Zhixin Jiang and Zhanzheng Zhao

activity was associated with kidney function in a health survey of general adult population. The analysis was further stratified by type of physical activity according to intensity. Materials and Methods Population The Nanjing Community Cardiovascular Risk Survey was carried out, using random cluster

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Alejandra Jáuregui, Catalina Medina, Deborah Salvo, Simon Barquera and Juan A. Rivera-Dommarco

Background:

Travel to school offers a convenient way to increase physical activity (PA) levels in youth. We examined the prevalence and correlates of active commuting to school (ACS) in a nationally representative sample of Mexican adolescents. A secondary objective was to explore the association between ACS and BMI status.

Methods:

Using data of adolescents (10–14 years old) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 2952) we ran multivariate regression models to explore the correlates of ACS and to test the association between ACS and BMI z-score or overweight/obesity. Models were adjusted for potential confounders and design effect.

Results:

70.8% of adolescents engaged in ACS (walking: 68.8%, bicycling: 2.0%). ACS was negatively associated with travel time, age, mother’s education level, household motor vehicle ownership, family socioeconomic status, and living in urban areas or the North region of the country (P < .05). Time in ACS was negatively associated with overweight/obesity: Each additional minute of ACS was associated with a 1% decrease in the odds for being overweight or obese (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Potential correlates of ACS that may result in benefits for Mexican adolescents are identified. More studies on this relationship are needed to develop interventions aimed at increasing PA through ACS in Mexico.

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Mohammad Sahebkar, Hamid Heidarian Miri, Pardis Noormohammadpour, Amir Tiyuri, Reza Pakzad, Nasrin Mansournia, Zahra Heidari, Mohammad Ali Mansournia and Emmanuel Stamatakis

Background: To investigate the geographical distribution of physical activity (PA) prevalence among adults aged 15–64 years old across Iran provinces using geographic maps. Methods: Data from 4 consecutive national surveys conducted between 2007 and 2010 were pooled to determine the geographical distribution. Prevalence of low PA with 95% confidence interval was estimated by sociodemographic subpopulations over provinces using complex survey design. Results: In total, 119,560 participants (49.9% females) were included in the analyses. The mean (SD) age of participants was 39.5 (14.3) years. The prevalence of the low PA in the pooled 2007–2010 was 35.8% (95% confidence interval, 34.1–37.6). The 3 provinces with the highest prevalence of low PA were Sistan and Baluchestan, Yazd, and Hormozgan. The results of hot spot analysis showed that the Kerman province was a hot spot, and Ilam, Kermanshah, Hamedan, and Markazi were cold spots for low PA. Ilam, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, and Mazandaran had the highest total PA volume (metabolic equivalent minutes per week). Hot spot analysis showed that Ilam and Khuzestan provinces were hot spots for the total PA volume. Conclusions: The regions with low and high PA are predominately situated in the near center/southeast and west, respectively.

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Brendon P. Hyndman, Amanda C. Benson, Shahid Ullah, Caroline F. Finch and Amanda Telford

Background:

Enjoyment and play during school lunchtime are correlated with children’s physical activity. Despite this, there is an absence of studies reporting children’s enjoyment of play during school lunchtime breaks. The purpose of this study was to examine the intraday and interday reliability of children’s enjoyment of school lunchtime play.

Methods:

Surveys used to assess children’s enjoyment of lunchtime play were distributed to and completed by 197 children (112 males, 85 females), aged 8–12 years attending an elementary school in Victoria, Australia. Children completed the surveys during class before lunch (expected enjoyment) and after lunch (actual enjoyment) for 5 days. The intra- and interday enjoyment of school lunchtime play reliability were determined using a weighted kappa.

Results:

Intraday kappa values ranged from fair (0.31) to substantial (0.75) within each of the 5 days (median kappa = 0.41). In comparison, “expected” (0.09–0.40; median 0.30) and “actual” (0.05–0.46; median 0.28) interday enjoyment of lunchtime play displayed low reliability.

Conclusions:

Children’s enjoyment of lunchtime play appears to be more consistent within days than across days. The findings suggest that assessment of children’s enjoyment of lunchtime play once on a single day would be representative of a particular day but not necessarily that particular school week.

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Alex Antonio Florindo, Vanessa Valente Guimarães, Chester Luiz Galvão Cesar, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros, Maria Cecília Goi Porto Alves and Moisés Goldbaum

Background:

To estimate the prevalence of and identify factors associated with physical activity in leisure, transportation, occupational, and household settings.

Methods:

This was a cross-sectional study aimed at investigating living and health conditions among the population of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on 1318 adults aged 18 to 65 years were used. To assess physical activity, the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied. Multivariate analysis was conducted using a hierarchical model.

Results:

The greatest prevalence of insufficient activity related to transportation (91.7%), followed by leisure (77.5%), occupational (68.9%), and household settings (56.7%). The variables associated with insufficient levels of physical activity in leisure were female sex, older age, low education level, nonwhite skin color, smoking, and self-reported poor health; in occupational settings were female sex, white skin color, high education level, self-reported poor health, nonsmoking, and obesity; in transportation settings were female sex; and in household settings, with male sex, separated, or widowed status and high education level.

Conclusion:

Physical activity in transportation and leisure settings should be encouraged. This study will serve as a reference point in monitoring different types of physical activities and implementing public physical activity policies in developing countries.