behavior and related health disparities in this community. In fact, objectively measured data from a large population-based study of US Latino adults found that 74% of their time was spent in sedentary activities. Furthermore, results indicated an adverse relationship between such sedentary time and
Sheri J. Hartman, Dori Pekmezi, Shira I. Dunsiger, and Bess H. Marcus
Michael D. Brown and Dulce H. Gomez
Health disparities are preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence, or opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experienced by socially disadvantaged populations ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013 ). They are experienced in the United States by
Melissa Bopp, Sara Wilcox, Marilyn Laken, Steven P. Hooker, Deborah Parra-Medina, Ruth Saunders, Kimberly Butler, Elizabeth A. Fallon, and Lottie McClorin
Physical activity (PA) participation offers many benefits especially among ethnic groups that experience health disparities. Partnering with faith-based organizations allows for a more culturally tailored approach to changing health behaviors.
8 Steps to Fitness was a faith-based behavior-change intervention promoting PA among members of African American churches. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine differences between the intervention group (n=72) and comparison group (n = 74). Health (resting blood pressure, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, fasting blood glucose), psycho-social (PA self-efficacy, social support, enjoyment, self-regulation, depression), and behavioral variables (PA, diet) were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-months. Repeated measures ANCOVAs tested changes across time between groups.
At 3-months, the intervention group showed significantly more favorable changes in body mass index, waist circumference and social support than the control group. At 6-months, the intervention group showed significantly more favorable changes in hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and depressive symptoms. There was notable attrition from both the intervention (36%) and the comparison group (58%).
This study was conducted in a real-world setting, and provided insight into how to deliver a culturally-tailored PA intervention program for African Americans with a potential for dissemination.
Toben F. Nelson, Steven L. Gortmaker, S. V. Subramanian, and Henry Wechsler
Vigorous physical activity (VPA) declines from adolescence into adulthood and social disparities in VPA exist. Physical activity is understudied in the college setting.
VPA during high school and college was examined among 10,437 students attending 119 four-year colleges using gender-stratified logistic regression analyses.
Fewer students engaged in VPA in college compared with high school (males 74% to 52%; females 68% to 44%). Athletics was associated with VPA, but 51% participated in high school and 15% in college. Among females, African Americans, Asians, and students of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) were less likely to engage in VPA in college, adjusting for high school VPA. Among males, Asians and older students were less likely to engage in VPA.
VPA declines from high school to college. Athletic participation is a determinant of VPA, but few participate in collegiate athletics. Social disparities in VPA emerge in college, an important setting for promoting VPA and addressing health disparities. Regular physical activity is an important contributor to human health. It is positively associated with longevity and may prevent or help manage diabetes, metabolic syndrome, overweight, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and colon cancer.1-8 Among children and adolescents, lack of physical activity is associated with higher body mass index.9-10 Physical activity is also associated with positive mood, self-esteem, and decreased anxiety.11-14
Toben F. Nelson, Richard F. MacLehose, Cynthia Davey, Peter Rode, and Marilyn S. Nanney
widened over the study period, improving only in schools with historically white students. Increasing inequality in PA may contribute to subsequent health disparities for health outcomes associated with PA, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, bone health, and some cancers, 6 and
Marissa A. Kobayashi, Tae Kyoung Lee, Rafael O. Leite, Blanca Noriega Esquives, Guillermo Prado, Sarah E. Messiah, and Sara M. St. George
Health Disparities to GP, PhD. The study sponsor had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, or interpretation, writing of the paper or decision to submit the paper for publication. Previous presentation of this data has been presented at the 2018 annual meetings of the Society of Behavioral
Ashleigh M. Johnson, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Nalini Ranjit, Harold W. Kohl III, and Andrew E. Springer
. doi:10.1057/jphp.2008.46 10.1057/jphp.2008.46 19190581 14. Gordon-Larsen P , Nelson MC , Page P , Popkin BM . Inequality in the built environment underlies key health disparities in physical activity and obesity . Pediatrics . 2006 ; 117 ( 2 ): 417 – 424 . PubMed ID: 16452361 doi:10
Jonathan Miller, Mark Pereira, Julian Wolfson, Melissa Laska, Toben Nelson, and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
al . Integrating multiple social statuses in health disparities research: the case of lung cancer . Health Serv Res . 2012 ; 47 ( 3, pt 2 ): 1255 – 1277 . doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2012.01404.x 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2012.01404.x 22568674 23. Biddle SJH , Whitehead SH , O’Donovan TM , Nevill ME
Mara Simon, Jihyeon Lee, Megen Evans, Sheldon Sucre, and Laura Azzarito
The current health disparities are stark. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and its devastating consequences for people from historically oppressed groups have exacerbated social inequalities and health disparities ( Tan et al., 2021 ), further underscoring the urgent need to explore pressing social
Manju Daniel, David Marquez, Diana Ingram, and Louis Fogg
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) disparities action plan emphasizes creating healthy environments for promoting healthy behaviors to eliminate health disparities. For this plan, one of the recommended strategies is to design and implement community-level prevention programs