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Effects of Adolescent Sport Practice on Health Outcomes of Adult Amateur Endurance Cyclists: Adulthood Is Not Too Late to Start

Diego Munguia-Izquierdo, Carmen Mayolas-Pi, Carlos Peñarrubia-Lozano, Federico Paris-Garcia, Javier Bueno-Antequera, Miguel Angel Oviedo-Caro, and Alejandro Legaz-Arrese

, and health outcomes of amateur athletes performing intense training regimens during adulthood. It is unknown whether commencing structured training in adulthood in previously inactive individuals is sufficient or whether it is too late to induce the optimal beneficial adaptations in health outcomes

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Exploring Student-Athlete Grit as a Mediator in the Relationships Between Parenting, Academic Success, and Mental Health Outcomes

Jackson M. Howard, Bonnie C. Nicholson, Michael B. Madson, Richard S. Mohn, and Emily Bullock-Yowell

& Neyer, 2001 ; Côté, 1999 ; Hagiwara, Iwatsuki, Isogai, Van Raalte, & Brewer, 2017 ; Proctor & Boan-Lenzo, 2010 ). This pressure to perform and succeed may foster an atmosphere that increases vulnerability to negative mental health outcomes ( Etzel, 2009 ). While causal conclusions cannot be made

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Health Outcomes of Physical Activity Interventions in Adults With Down Syndrome: A Systematic Review

Brantley K. Ballenger, Emma E. Schultz, Melody Dale, Bo Fernhall, Robert W. Motl, and Stamatis Agiovlasitis

may elicit different health and fitness benefits from strength training ( Department of Health and Human Services, 2018 ). Determining health benefits of different PA and exercise programs can offer insight into the most effective programs for desired health outcomes in adults with DS. Systematically

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Understanding Variations in the Health Consequences of Sedentary Behavior: A Taxonomy of Social Interaction, Novelty, Choice, and Cognition

Wendell C. Taylor

the sitting posture may be the same, a fundamental distinction that informs the empirical data is the type of behavior being engaged in while sitting. In other words, “what else are you doing or not doing while sitting” that produces differential health outcomes unrelated to the essence of the actual

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Mental Health Literacy, Help-Seeking, and Mental Health Outcomes in Women Rugby Players

Shakiba Oftadeh-Moghadam and Paul Gorczynski

and access to health care worldwide, with all ages of the LGBTQ+ reporting worse physical and mental health outcomes than cisgender and heterosexual people due to stress. Research on LGTBQ athletes is scarce. Kroshus and Davoren ( 2016 )’s study with college student-athletes illustrated that sexual

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Transition-Related Psychosocial Factors and Mental Health Outcomes in Former National Football League Players: An NFL-LONG Study

J.D. DeFreese, Samuel R. Walton, Zachary Yukio Kerr, Benjamin L. Brett, Avinash Chandran, Rebekah Mannix, Hope Campbell, Ruben J. Echemendia, Michael A. McCrea, William P. Meehan III, and Kevin M. Guskiewicz

The transition from professional (i.e., National Football League [NFL]) football to nonsport endeavors represents a notable sport psychology research to practice interest. Research to date has highlighted mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, and associated symptoms as important

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Effects of Physical Activity on the Physical and Psychosocial Health of Youth With Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Nathanial J. Kapsal, Theresa Dicke, Alexandre J.S. Morin, Diego Vasconcellos, Christophe Maïano, Jane Lee, and Chris Lonsdale

the first quantitative synthesis of a broad range of health outcomes associated with physical activity among youth with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the existing research related to the physical health and psychosocial health outcomes of physical activity for

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Using Devices to Assess Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in a Large Cohort Study: The Women’s Health Study

I-Min Lee, Eric J. Shiroma, Kelly R. Evenson, Masamitsu Kamada, Andrea Z. LaCroix, and Julie E. Buring

-assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior in a large cohort of women participating in the Women’s Health Study, who are being followed longitudinally for long-term health outcomes. In this article, we describe the methodology for accelerometer data collection and reduction, as well as expand on previously

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Exploring the Relationship Between Physical Activity Knowledge, Health Outcomes Expectancies, and Behavior

Katie M. Heinrich, Jay Maddock, and Adrian Bauman


Despite clear health benefits of physical activity, previous research has been limited in linking knowledge of physical activity recommendations to actual behavior.


Using Expectancy Theory, we examined whether an individual’s health outcome expectancies from physical activity might provide the missing link between knowledge and behavior. With data from a cross-sectional survey, we assessed differences between how much moderate physical activity people thought they needed for health benefits compared with what they thought experts recommended and the relationship of these differences to physical activity behaviors.


Our hypothesis that people with positive health outcome expectancies would report more minutes of physical activity than those with neutral or negative health outcome expectancies was supported for all self-reported physical activity behaviors (P < .001).


It appears that the health outcome expectancy of needing more physical activity than recommended by experts is correlated with achieving more physical activity, regardless of type. Future research should address health outcome expectancies as a way to impact physical activity.

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Different Amounts of Physical Activity Measured by Pedometer and the Associations With Health Outcomes in Adults

Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Scott Duncan, Jamile Sanches Codogno, Manoel Carlos Spiguel Lima, and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes


Physical activity level is an important tool to identify individuals predisposed to developing chronic diseases, which represent a major concern worldwide.


To identify correlates of daily step counts measured using pedometers, as well as analyze the associations between health outcomes and 3 different amounts of daily physical activity.


The sample comprised 278 participants (126 men and 153 women) with a mean age of 46.51 ± 9.02 years. Physical activity was assessed using pedometers for 7 consecutive days, and 3 amounts of daily physical activity were considered: ≥10,000 steps/day, ≥7500 steps/day, and <5000 steps/day. Sleep quality was assessed through a questionnaire, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body fat. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were also collected.


The percentages of adults achieving at least 10,000 and 7500 steps/day on a minimum of 5 days of the evaluated week were 12.9% and 30.9%, respectively. Adults who reached ≥7500 steps/day had a lower likelihood of being obese (odds ratio [OR] = 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17–0.85) and reporting worse sleep quality (OR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.34–0.99). Adults who reached <5000 steps/day had a higher likelihood of reporting worse sleep quality (OR = 2.11, 95% CI, 1.17–3.82).


Physical activity in adulthood, as measured by pedometer, constituted a behavior related to lower adiposity and better sleep quality.