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Xihe Zhu and Justin A. Haegele

to impact health-related behavior change among children is health-related fitness knowledge ( Ferkel, Judge, Stodden, & Griffin, 2014 ; Keating, Chen, Guan, Harrison, & Dauenhauer, 2009 ; Stewart & Mitchell, 2003 ). Health-related fitness knowledge can be defined as one’s knowledge of his or her

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Liz Haslem, Carol Wilkinson, Kevin A. Prusak, William F. Christensen and Todd Pennington

The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school students (N = 280) at the end of a CPE course completed the following: Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire–2, Godin Leisure–Time Exercise Questionnaire, Perceived Competence Scale, and a HRFK Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling analysis was used to explore the relationships between the variables of HRFK, perceived competence, motivation, and physical activity. The analysis resulted in a modified model that showed a relationship between perceived competence and physical activity, mediated by introjected and identified regulation. A relationship also existed between HRFK and external regulation indicating students felt controlled. Suggested value-promoting activities could help students value concepts being taught.

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Xiaofen Deng Keating, Louis Harrison, Li Chen, Ping Xiang, Dolly Lambdin, Brian Dauenhauer, Willy Rotich and Jose Castro Piñero

Although substantial inquiry has been made into fitness levels of students, there has been scant examination of knowledge in this domain. This article seeks to review and analyze research on student health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge mastery in K–16 programs by examining studies published in the literature. Two major results emerging from the work are misconceptions about fitness and the lack of an adequate amount of HRF knowledge among students at all educational levels (i.e., elementary, secondary, and college). These results were essentially the same as those found more than 20 years ago, indicating a persistent deficiency in fitness education. In addition, little is understood as to how HRF knowledge contributes to the establishment of lifetime physical activity patterns. Student HRF knowledge determinants as well as effective instructional strategies also need thorough study. Based on these findings, implications for improving student HRF knowledge through physical education are discussed, and recommendations for future research are included.

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Michael Hodges, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Chong Lee and Ja Youn Kwon

Students of all ages have documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK). However, improving students HRFK may require a change in teacher practices and professional development (PD).

Purpose:

This study, framed by Guskey’s Model of Teacher Change (GMTC; Guskey, 2002), sought to assist teachers’ HRFK instruction as part of their physical education curriculum and practices. Initially, researchers examined: (a) teachers’ perceptions of health-related fitness knowledge instruction, followed by, (b) selected teachers’ perceptions of the professional development (PD) methods and the approach to teaching HRFK.

Method:

Semistructured interviews were conducted among elementary physical education teachers’ (N = 9) in one suburban school district. A randomly selected smaller group of teachers (n = 5), had PD on Knowledge in Action Lesson Segments (KIALS), an approach to teaching HRFK. Teachers were asked to implement KIALS into their fifth grade physical education classes and interviewed two additional times.

Results:

Three themes emerged from the data: (a) HRFK is critical but I can’t get to it; (b) If you show it, they will implement it; and (c) Knowledge in Action gets the job done.

Conclusion:

PD procedures in this study and KIALS were seen as favorable. Results paralleled GMTC principles, as researchers confirmed quality PD, and observations of positive student outcomes further reinforced teachers’ beliefs. Teachers also expressed a willingness to continue using KIALS after the completion of this study, concluding achievement of the final fourth principal of the change process. Findings suggested that KIALS, if presented with similar PD will be well-received by teachers supporting their efforts to improve student HRFK outcomes.

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Peter A. Hastie, Senlin Chen and Anthony J. Guarino

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to examine the process and outcome of an intervention using the project-based learning (PBL) model to increase students’ health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge.

Method:

The participants were 185 fifth-grade students from three schools in Alabama (PBL group: n = 109; control group: n = 76). HRF knowledge was measured using a valid written test.

Results:

Using a two-level Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) where students were nested within teachers’ classrooms, the results show that controlling for “Class” there was a statistically significant difference between the two group conditions with the PBL cohort scoring 18.85% greater than the control schools at posttest.

Discussion:

The findings have shown supportive evidence as to the efficacy of a PBL-themed fitness education unit.

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Michael G. Hodges, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Hans van der Mars and Chong Lee

The purpose of this study was to determine students’ health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity levels after the implementation of a series of fitness lessons segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). KIA aims to teach health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) during short episodes of the physical education lesson. Teacher participants from one district (N = 10) were randomly assigned into either the intervention or comparison group. Intervention teachers used the KIA fitness lessons during fifth grade students’ physical education classes. These teachers received training sessions, teaching materials, and YouTube videos that modeled the KIA fitness lessons. Intervention fidelity was assessed through observations and a fidelity checklist. Students’ physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers and HRFK was examined by PE Metrics 28-question pencil and paper test. General linear models (GLM) and Hierarchical linear models (HLM) were used to examine group differences. Intervention students had a 3.4 (20%) greater unit improvement in HRFK scores when compared with their comparison counterparts (p < .001), at the school level. Student activity levels of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time were similar in both groups (p = .64). Teachers can use the KIA fitness lesson segments or similar strategies to effectively teach HRFK in elementary physical education classes.

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Tina J. Hall, Lori K. Hicklin and Karen E. French

Purpose:

To examine the relationship between the South Carolina middle school physical education assessment results and the school characteristics. In addition, the relationship between teacher training attendance and student achievement were determined.

Method:

Student performance on four physical education indicators in 63 middle schools (and 116 teachers) were reported to the South Carolina Physical Education Assessment Program. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between school characteristics as predictors of the performance indicator. ANOVAs were conducted to determine the relationship to teacher training and the performance indicators.

Results:

Statewide averages of student performance indicated that slightly over 50% of middle school students were rated as competent in all physical education indicators except health-related fitness (31.2%). The variability was high among all indicators. The correlations between the poverty index and the physical education indicators were significant and low. Teachers who attended data collection training sessions scored higher on all performance indicators, particularly health-related fitness knowledge. Teachers who attended professional development had significantly higher scores on motor skills, health-related fitness knowledge, and the overall weighted scores and approached significance on the health-related fitness performance.

Discussion/Conclusion:

This study suggests that teachers and the programs they deliver have a greater impact on student learning than do school characteristics. Teacher training and professional development is warranted. Most compelling is that the results of this study provide a strong argument against the practice of using student scores from other academic content areas to evaluate teacher effectiveness in physical education.

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Xihe Zhu and Ang Chen

This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day after-school Physical Activity Recall. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling to test an a priori model. Results revealed that expectancy belief significantly predicted adolescent psychomotor achievement, and that psychomotor achievement was the only direct significant predictor for physical activity participation (p < .05). Expectancy belief and task values were not significantly directly associated with adolescent physical activity participation (p > .05). The findings suggested the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation and physical activity participation is likely to be mediated by their psychomotor skill achievement.

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Cevdet Cengiz and Mustafa Levent Ince

Background:

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a social-ecologic intervention on health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge and behaviors of students (n = 62) living in rural areas.

Methods:

A prepost test control group design was constructed. In addition, qualitative data were collected by focus group discussions in the experimental group. Physical activity environment of a middle school was changed based on the social-ecologic model (SEM) with a focus on intrapersonal, interpersonal, community level, organizational factors, and public policies related to physical activity behavior. Health related fitness knowledge (HRFK) test, pedometer, and perceived physical activity self-efficacy and social support questionnaires were used for data collection.

Results:

Experimental group had significant improvement in HRF knowledge scores, physical activity levels, and social support compared with the control school students. The focus group results also supported the quantitative findings by indicating a perceived increase in physical activity opportunities; knowledge sources; and support from others.

Conclusions:

This study underlines the importance and positive outcomes of SEM in improving HRF knowledge, physical activity level, and social support of students in rural middle school settings.

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Yang Liu and Senlin Chen

above results are similar to the observation made by Demetriou, Sudeck, and Höner ( 2014 ), who reported a significantly higher level of health-related fitness knowledge among girls than boys in sixth grade, after receiving a curriculum intervention. Likewise, Fardy et al. ( 1996 ) found that high