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Xihe Zhu and Justin A. Haegele

to impact health-related behavior change among children is health-related fitness knowledge ( Ferkel, Judge, Stodden, & Griffin, 2014 ; Keating, Chen, Guan, Harrison, & Dauenhauer, 2009 ; Stewart & Mitchell, 2003 ). Health-related fitness knowledge can be defined as one’s knowledge of his or her

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José A. Santiago and James R. Morrow Jr.

Children and Youth ( National Physical Activity Plan Alliance, 2018 ), only 24% of children aged 6–17 years meet the requirement of 60 min of PA every day. Coinciding with the low rates of PA is the decline of health-related fitness (HRF). Approximately 42% of youth aged 12–15 years have adequate

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Brendan T. O’Keeffe, Alan E. Donnelly, and Ciaran MacDonncha

school principal, the participants, and their parents. The participation rate was 92.4% (N = 86). The reliability of SA health-related fitness tests was assessed using a 2-group design. Participants were assigned into a SA group (n = 45; age: 13.44 [0.35] y; girls = 26) or research assistant

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Xiaolu Liu, Xiaofen D. Hamilton, Rulan Shangguan, Jingwen Liu, Sarah J. Wall, and Richard Guerra

Student health-related fitness education is an essential component of K–12 physical education (PE) programs, based on the third National Standard for PE, “the physically literate individual demonstrates the knowledge and skills to achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical activity

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Emily M. D’Agostino, Sophia E. Day, Kevin J. Konty, Michael Larkin, Subir Saha, and Katarzyna Wyka

Research has shown that decreases in health-related fitness (fitness) may increase school absenteeism. 1 , 2 The fitness-physical activity association is well established, 3 including an improved cardiometabolic risk profile in youth who engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity daily. 4

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You Fu and Ryan D. Burns

There is evidence suggesting that active video gaming (AVG) has the potential to improve both health behaviors (eg, physical activity) and health-related fitness (eg, body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance) in children and adolescents. 1 – 3 Mechanisms to achieve these benefits include

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Lois Michaud Tomson, Robert P. Pangrazi, Glenn Friedman, and Ned Hutchison

While research has confirmed a negative relationship between adult depression and physical activity, there is little evidence for children. This study examined the relationship of being classified as physically active or inactive by a parent or a teacher to depressive symptoms in children 8 to 12 years of age (N = 933). It also assessed the relationship of playing sports outside of school, and of meeting health related fitness standards, to symptoms of depression. Relative risk of depressive symptoms for inactive classification was 2.8 to 3.4 times higher than it was for active, 1.3 to 2.4 times higher for children not playing sports outside of school, and 1.5 to 4.0 times higher for those not meeting health related fitness goals.

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Peter A. Hastie, Senlin Chen, and Anthony J. Guarino


The purpose of this study was to examine the process and outcome of an intervention using the project-based learning (PBL) model to increase students’ health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge.


The participants were 185 fifth-grade students from three schools in Alabama (PBL group: n = 109; control group: n = 76). HRF knowledge was measured using a valid written test.


Using a two-level Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) where students were nested within teachers’ classrooms, the results show that controlling for “Class” there was a statistically significant difference between the two group conditions with the PBL cohort scoring 18.85% greater than the control schools at posttest.


The findings have shown supportive evidence as to the efficacy of a PBL-themed fitness education unit.

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Darla Castelli and Lori Williams

This study examined what teachers know about health-related fitness (HRF) and how confident they are in their knowledge. Seventy-three middle school physical education teachers completed a 3-part cognitive HRF test and a self-efficacy questionnaire that required responses to statements about how confident they were in passing a HRF knowledge test. Results indicated that teachers were very confident in their knowledge of HRF; however, their actual HRF test scores did not meet the standard of achievement expected of a ninth-grade student as assessed by the South Carolina Physical Education Assessment Program. Further investigation of the influence of teacher characteristics related to HRF knowledge revealed that age and years of teaching experience significantly related to self-efficacy but not to HRF knowledge. This study implies that targeted teacher development is a necessary part of attaining and maintaining HRF knowledge required to teach to state and national standards.

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Narelle Eather, Mark Babic, Nicholas Riley, Sarah A. Costigan, and David R. Lubans

stimulate improvements in health-related fitness is a priority ( Faigenbaum et al., 2009 ; Hay et al., 2012 ; Hogstrom et al., 2016 ; Janssen & LeBlanc, 2010 ; Lloyd et al., 2014 ; Swain & Franklin, 2006 ; Warburton & Bredin, 2017 ). High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as a popular and