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Kunal Bhanot, Navpreet Kaur, Lori Thein Brody, Jennifer Bridges, David C. Berry and Joshua J. Ode

–.93) reliability, and low measurement error (2.2%–2.9%) when assessing DB in the healthy adults. 3 , 6 – 8 The SEBT has been used to identify athletes who are at risk for LE injuries and also to identify deficits following LE injuries in athletes. 3 , 9 – 11 It has also been used to monitor rehabilitation

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Frank E. DiLiberto and Deborah A. Nawoczenski

contribution of midfoot region power to single-limb heel rise in healthy adults. We hypothesized that the midfoot region would generate power during the rising phase of the heel rise and account for a significant portion of the variance in heel-rise height. Methods A total of 12 healthy individuals

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Frank E. DiLiberto, Deborah A. Nawoczenski and Jeff Houck

of this study was to compare the magnitude of ankle and midfoot power generation during the progressively more challenging functional tasks of walking, standard-step ascent, and high-step ascent in healthy adults. We hypothesized that (1) ankle and midfoot peak power generation and positive total

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Carlos Ayán, Paulo Carvalho, Silvia Varela and José María Cancela

necessary, as it has been observed that exercise has a selective protective effect on the cognitive function of middle-aged women. 3 However, research on the relationship between physical exercise training and cognitive function in healthy adult people remains scarce, particularly in women, who have been

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Stephanie A. Hooker, Laura B. Oswald, Kathryn J. Reid and Kelly G. Baron

behaviors, and (2) to determine whether variabilities in health behaviors are related to measures of body composition (BMI and body fat percentage) in a sample of healthy adults. We hypothesized that greater variability in sleep would be related to body composition (greater BMI and greater percent body fat

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Maria Sundqvist, Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Jonas Lindh, Katja Laakso and Lena Hartelius

In this study we systematically compared syllable repetition and finger tapping in healthy adults, and explored possible impacts of tempi, metronome, musical experience, and age on motor timing ability. One hundred healthy adults used finger-tapping and syllable repetition to perform an isochronous pulse in three different tempi, with and without a metronome. Results showed that the motor timing was more accurate with finger tapping than with syllable repetition in the slowest tempo, and the motor timing ability was better with the metronome than without. Persons with musical experience showed better motor timing accuracy than persons without such experience, and the timing asynchrony increased with increasing age. The slowest tempo 90 bpm posed extra challenges to the participants. We speculate that this pattern reflects the fact that the slow tempo lies outside the 3–8 Hz syllable rate of natural speech, which in turn has been linked to theta-based oscillations in the brain.

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Suzie Mudge, Denise Taylor, Oliver Chang and Rosita Wong


Activity Monitors give an objective measure of usual walking performance. This study aimed to examine the test-retest reliability of the StepWatch Activity Monitor outputs (mean steps/day; peak activity index; sustained activity indices of 1, 5, 20, 30, 60 minutes; steps at high, medium, and low stepping rates).


Thirty healthy adults age 18 to 49 years wore the StepWatch for 2 3-day periods at least 1 week apart.


The intraclass correlation coefficients of the StepWatch outputs ranged from 0.44 to 0.91 over 3 days. The coefficient of variation ranged from 3.0% to 51.3% over the monitoring periods, with higher variation shown for shorter monitoring periods. The most reliable 5 outputs had 95% limits of agreement between 3-day periods that were less than 40%. These were mean steps/day (±39.1%), highest step rate in 1 (±17.3%) and 5 (±37.4%) minutes, peak activity index (±25.6%), and percentage of inactive time (±9.52%).


Mean steps/day, highest step rate in 1 and 5 minutes, peak activity index, and percentage of inactive time have good test-retest reliability over a 3-day monitoring period, with lower reliability shown by the other StepWatch outputs. Monitoring over 1 or 2 days is less reliable.

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Margaret A. Finley, Laura Dipietro, Jill Ohlhoff, Jill Whitall, Hermano I. Krebs and Christopher T. Bever

We are expanding the use of the MIT-MANUS robotics to persons with impairments due exclusively to orthopedic disorders, with no neurological deficits. To understand the reliability of repeated measurements of the robotic tasks and the potential for registering changes due to learning is critical. Purposes of this study were to assess the learning effect of repeated exposure to robotic evaluations and to demonstrate the ability to detect a change in protocol in outcome measurements. Ten healthy, unimpaired subjects (mean age = 54.1 ± 6.4 years) performed six repeated evaluations consisting of unconstrained reaching movements to targets and circle drawing (with and without a visual template) on the MIT-MANUS. Reaching outcomes were aiming error, mean and peak speed, movement smoothness and duration. Outcomes for circle drawing were axis ratio metric and shoulder–elbow joint angles correlation metric (was based on a two-link model of the human arm and calculated hand path during the motions). Repeated-measures ANOVA (p ≤ .05) determined if difference existed between the sessions. Intraclass correlations (R) were calculated. All variables were reliable, without learning across testing sessions. Intraclass correlation values were good to high (reaching, R ≥ .80; circle drawing, R ≥ .90). Robotic measurement ability to differentiate between similar but distinct tasks was demonstrated as measured by axis ratio metric (p < .001) and joint correlation metric (p = .001). Outcome measures of the MIT-MANUS proved to be reliable yet sensitive to change in healthy adults without motor learning over the course of repeated measurements.

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James G. Wrightson, Emma Z. Ross and Nicholas J. Smeeton

In a number of studies in which a dual-task gait paradigm was used, researchers reported a relationship between cognitive function and gait. However, it is not clear to what extent these effects are dependent on the type of cognitive and walking tasks used in the dual-task paradigm. This study examined whether stride-time variability (STV) and trunk range of motion (RoM) are affected by the type of cognitive task and walking speed used during dual-task gait. Participants walked at both their preferred walking speed and at 25% of their preferred walking speed and performed a serial subtraction and a working memory task at both speeds. Although both tasks significantly reduced STV at both walking speeds, there was no difference between the two tasks. Trunk RoM was affected by the walking speed and type of cognitive task used during dual-task gait: Mediolateral trunk RoM was increased at the slow walking speed, and anterior-posterior trunk RoM was higher only when performing the serial subtraction task at the slow walking speed. The reduction of STV, regardless of cognitive-task type, suggests that healthy adults may redirect cognitive processes away from gait toward cognitive-task performance during dual-task gait.

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Amanda Zaleski, Beth Taylor, Braden Armstrong, Michael Puglisi, Priscilla Clarkson, Stuart Chipkin, Charles Michael White, Paul D. Thompson and Linda S. Pescatello

maximal exercise has yet to be examined in otherwise healthy adults. This is surprising because the hemodynamic response to maximal exercise is considered an important clinical marker and screening tool for individuals at risk for future incident hypertension prior to its development ( Kim & Ha, 2016