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Damla Gulpinar, Sibel Tekeli Ozer and Sevgi Sevi Yesilyaprak

Context: Alterations in posture and motion patterns are thought to play a role in developing shoulder injuries in overhead athletes. Taping is widely used in the sporting population, but there are limited empirical data regarding its effectiveness. Objectives: To determine and compare the effects of rigid and kinesio taping on shoulder rotation motions, posterior shoulder tightness (PST), and posture in overhead athletes. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Athletic training rooms. Participants: Eighty-six asymptomatic elite overhead athletes. Interventions: Participants were randomly divided into 4 groups: rigid taping group (RTG) that underwent therapeutic rigid taping, kinesio taping group (KTG) that underwent therapeutic kinesio taping, placebo group that underwent placebo kinesio taping (shoulder and scapular region taping for taping groups), and control group (no taping). Main Outcome Measures: Shoulder rotation motions, PST, and head and shoulder posture were evaluated at baseline, immediately after application and 60 to 72 hours after application for all groups. Results: Glenohumeral internal rotation increased immediately (P < .001) and at 60 to 72 hours after application in the KTG (P = .01), whereas it decreased immediately after application in the RTG (P < .001). Immediately after application, total rotation range of motion increased in the KTG (P =.02) and decreased in the RTG (P < .001), and there was a difference between groups (P = .02). Immediately after application, PST increased in the RTG (P < .001); after 60 to 72 hours, it decreased in the KTG (P = .04) and increased in the RTG (P = .01). Posture outcomes did not change significantly (P > .05). Conclusions: Kinesio taping may improve and rigid taping may worsen glenohumeral internal rotation and PST in overhead athletes. For increasing total rotation range of motion, kinesio taping is superior to rigid taping. Taping did not affect posture. Short-term kinesio taping in overhead athletes may be useful to improve glenohumeral internal rotation, total rotation range of motion, and PST.

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Marjan Someeh, Ali Asghar Norasteh, Hassan Daneshmandi and Abbas Asadi

Context:

Ankle sprains or chronic ankle instability (CAI) is common in athletes and a common method for decreasing the effects of ankle instable is using tape.

Objective:

To determine whether Mulligan ankle taping (MAT) influenced the functional performance (FP) tests in athletes with and without CAI.

Design:

A cross-sectional study using a within-subject experimental design between four ankle conditions (taped and untaped, athletes with and without CAI).

Setting:

Research laboratory.

Participants:

Sixteen professional athletes with unilateral CAI (10 men and 6 women; age 23.2 ± 3 years, height 175.4 ± 10.3 cm, weight 73 ± 14.5 kg, and body mass index 23.8 ± 3.6%) and 16 uninjured professional athletes (10 men and 6 women; age 22.8 ± 1.7 years, height 173.6 ± 12.2 cm, weight 66.4 ± 11.4 kg, and body mass index 22.2 ± 3.3%) volunteered to participant in this study.

Intervention:

Mulligan ankle taping.

Main Outcome Measures:

FP tests including single leg hopping course, Figure-of-8 hop and side hop were measured for both the groups in two conditions: taped and untaped.

Results:

There were significant differences between injured and uninjured athletes in all FP tests (P < .05). MAT significantly improved FP tests in both groups (P < .05).

Conclusion:

We found that MAT can improve FP tests in athletes with CAI and uninjured athletes. Therefore, it seems that MAT can be an effective method for enhancing athletes’ performance in sports that require lateral movements.

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Johanna M. Hoch, Megan N. Houston, Shelby E. Baez and Matthew C. Hoch

Context: Many athletes return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with lingering physical or mental health impairments. Examining health-related quality of life (HRQL) and fear-avoidance beliefs across the spectrum of noninjured athletes and athletes with a history of ACLR may provide further insight into targeted therapies warranted for this population. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in fear-avoidance beliefs and HRQL in college athletes with a history of ACLR not participating in sport (ACLR-NPS), participating in sport (ACLR-PS), and healthy controls (Control) with no history of injury participating in sport. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Laboratory. Patients (or Other Participants): A total of 10 college athletes per group (ACLR-NPS, ACLR-PS, and Control) were included. Participants were included if on a roster of a Division I or III athletic team during data collection. Interventions: Participants completed a demographic survey, the modified Disablement in the Physically Active Scale (mDPA) to assess HRQL, and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) to assess fear-avoidance beliefs. Main Outcome Measures: Scores on the mDPA (Physical and Mental) and FABQ subscales (Sport and Physical Activity) were calculated, a 1-way Kruskal–Wallis test and separate Mann–Whitney U post hoc tests were performed (P < .05). Results: ACLR-NPS (30.00 [26.00]) had higher FABQ-Sport scores than ACLR-PS (18.00 [26.00]; P < .001) and Controls (0.00 [2.50]; P < .001). ACLR-NPS (21.50 [6.25]) had higher FABQ-Physical Activity scores than ACLR-PS (12.50 [13.00]; P = .001) and Controls (0.00 [1.00]; P < .001). Interestingly, ACLR-PS scores for FABQ-Sport (P = .01) and FABQ-Physical Activity (P = .04) were elevated compared with Controls. ACLR-NPS had higher scores on the mDPA-Physical compared with the ACLR-PS (P < .001) and Controls (P < .001), and mDPA-Mental compared with ACLR-PS (P = .01), indicating decreased HRQL. Conclusions: The ACLR-NPS had greater fear-avoidance beliefs and lower HRQL compared with ACLR-PS and Controls. However, the ACLR-PS had higher scores for both FABQ subscales compared with Controls. These findings support the need for additional psychosocial therapies to address fear-avoidance beliefs in the returned to sport population.

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Shogo Uota, Anh-Dung Nguyen, Naoko Aminaka and Yohei Shimokochi

Context:

Excessive knee valgus and tibial external rotation relative to the femur during weight bearing motions, such as jump-landing, reportedly increases the risk of developing chronic knee pain, such as patellofemoral pain. Excessive deviations from normal ranges of several static lower extremity alignment measures and dynamic hip motions may also increase the risks for patellofemoral pain.

Objective:

To determine the relationship between lower extremity alignments and hip motions to frontal and transverse plane knee motions during double-leg landings.

Design:

Correlational study.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Patients or Other Participants:

69 healthy, competitive athletes (27 men, 42 women; height, 166.5 ± 9.5 cm; weight, 61.3 ± 9.9 kg; age, 20.7 ± 1.0 y) participated in this study.

Interventions:

Prone and supine hip version, quadriceps angle, and tibiofemoral angle were measured. Frontal and transverse knee and hip angles at peak knee extensor moment during landing were calculated.

Main Outcome Measures:

2 separate stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted to predict frontal and transverse plane knee motions using 4 static lower extremity alignment measures and hip motions.

Results:

Greater hip adduction and prone hip anteversion, and lesser hip internal rotation and supine hip anteversion, were related to greater knee valgus motions (R 2 = .475, P < .01). Greater hip adduction was related to greater knee external rotation (R 2 = .205, P < .01).

Conclusions:

Some targeted static lower extremity alignments and hip motions are associated with frontal and transverse knee motions. However, stronger relationships of hip motions with knee motions than static lower extremity alignments provided evidence that improving hip movements may help improve patellofemoral pain in those with lower extremity malalignments.

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Bassam A. Nabil, Mariam A. Ameer, Azza M. Abdelmohsen, Abeer F. Hanafy, Ahmed S. Yamani, Naglaa M. Elhafez and Salam M. Elhafez

voluntarily participated in this study. They were allotted into 2 experimental groups and 1 control group: group A (experimental), which included 10 athletes with tennis elbow; group B (experimental), which included 10 athletes with golfer’s elbow; and group C (control), which included 10 healthy athletes

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

. Only anecdotal-type substantiation supports the efficacy of a GFD for clinically healthy athletes. Nonetheless, it is important to understand the unique stress placed on the gut in some track-and-field athletes and the likely higher incidence of exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome ( Costa et

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Marianne J.R. Gittoes and Cassie Wilson

This study aimed to develop insight into the lower extremity joint coupling motions used in the maximal velocity phase of sprint running. Two-dimensional coordinate data were used to derive sagittal plane joint angle profiles of sprint running trials. Intralimb joint coupling motions were examined using a continuous relative phase (CRP) analysis. The knee-ankle (KA) coupling was more out of phase compared with the hip-knee (HK) coupling across the step phase (mean CRP: KA 89.9° HK 34.2°) and produced a lower within-athlete CRP variability (VCRP) in stance. Touchdown (TD) produced more out-of-phase motions and a larger VCRP than toe-off. A destabilization of the lower extremity coordination pattern was considered necessary at TD to allow for the swing-to-stance transition. The key role that the KA joint motion has in the movement patterns used by healthy athletes in the maximal velocity phase of sprint running was highlighted.

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John T. Foley, Meghann Lloyd and Viviene A. Temple

This study examined temporal trends in body mass index (BMI) among United States adults with intellectual disability (ID) participating in Special Olympics from 2005 to 2010. In addition, the prevalence of obesity was compared with published National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) statistics. After data cleaning, 6,004 height and weight records (male = 57%) were available from the Special Olympics International Healthy Athletes Health Promotion database for the calculation of BMI. Rates of overweight and obesity were very high but generally stable over time. Compared with NHANES statistics, the prevalence of obesity was significantly higher for Special Olympics female participants in each data collection cycle. Integrated efforts to understand the social, environmental, behavioral, and biological determinants of obesity and among Special Olympics participants are needed.

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Enda F. Whyte, Nicola Gibbons, Grainne Kerr and Kieran A. Moran

Context: Determination of return to play (RTP) after sport-related concussion (SRC) is critical given the potential consequences of premature RTP. Current RTP guidelines may not identify persistent exercise-induced neurocognitive deficits in asymptomatic athletes after SRC. Therefore, postexercise neurocognitive testing has been recommended to further inform RTP determination. To implement this recommendation, the effect of exercise on neurocognitive function in healthy athletes should be understood. Objective: To examine the acute effects of a high-intensity intermittent-exercise protocol (HIIP) on neurocognitive function assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (SDMT) and Stroop Interference Test. Design: Cohort study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants 40 healthy male athletes (age 21.25 ± 1.29 y, education 16.95 ± 1.37 y). Intervention: Each participant completed the SDMT and Stroop Interference Test at baseline and after random allocation to a condition (HIIP vs control). A mixed between-within-subjects ANOVA assessed time- (pre- vs postcondition) -by-condition interaction effects. Main Outcome Measures: SDMT and Stroop Interference Test scores. Results: There was a significant time-by-condition interaction effect (P < .001, η 2 = .364) for the Stroop Interference Test scores, indicating that the HIIP group scored significantly lower (56.05 ± 9.34) postcondition than the control group (66.39 ± 19.6). There was no significant time-by-condition effect (P = .997, η 2 < .001) for the SDMT, indicating that there was no difference between SDMT scores for the HIIP and control groups (59.95 ± 10.7 vs 58.56 ± 14.02). Conclusions: In healthy athletes, the HIIP results in a reduction in neurocognitive function as assessed by the Stroop Interference Test, with no effect on function as assessed by the SDMT. Testing should also be considered after high-intensity exercise in determining RTP decisions for athletes after SRC in conjunction with the existing recommended RTP protocol. These results may provide an initial reference point for future research investigating the effects of an HIIP on the neurocognitive function of athletes recovering from SRC.

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Susan Miniello, Geoffrey Dover, Michael Powers, Mark Tillman and Erik Wikstrom

Context:

Previous studies have suggested that cryotherapy affects neuromuscu-lar function and therefore might impair dynamic stability. If cryotherapy affects dynamic stability, clinicians might alter their decisions regarding returning athletes to play immediately after treatment.

Objective:

To assess the effects of lower leg cold immersion on muscle activity and dynamic stability of the lower extremity.

Design:

Within-subject time-series design with 1 pretest and 2 posttests.

Setting:

A climate-controlled biomechanics laboratory.

Participants:

17 healthy women.

Interventions:

20-minute cold-water immersion.

Main Outcome Measures:

Preparatory and reactive electromyographic activity of the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus and time to stabilization after a jump landing.

Results:

Preparatory activity of the tibialis anterior increased after treatment, whereas preparatory and reactive peroneus longus activity decreased. Both returned to baseline after a 5-minute recovery. Time to stabilization did not change.

Conclusions:

Lower leg cold-immersion therapy does not impair dynamic stability in healthy women during a jump-landing task. Return to participation after a cryotherapy treatment is not contraindicated for healthy athletes.