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Sharon Schmidt

Unless vestibular etiology exists, the hearing impaired student exhibits no difference in motor performance than other students in the regular physical education class. Physical educators will need to plan and teach lessons which show an understanding of the concomitant language delay that will accompany a hearing impairment. Using sign language and a variety of visual aids as well as monitoring the language level of handouts can make the physical education class highly beneficial for the hearing impaired student.

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Jeff Goodman and Chris Hopper

The present paper is a comparative review of studies assessing the psychomotor skills of hearing impaired children and youth. Studies have found balance deficiencies in hearing impaired subjects compared to hearing subjects. Research comparing hearing impaired and hearing subjects in motor performance have revealed contradictory results. Studies assessing physical fitness found hearing impaired subjects to be inferior to hearing subjects in a few items. Overall, hearing impaired subjects were found to be more similar than dissimilar in psychomotor behavior, with the exception of balance. Hearing impaired persons need to be individually evaluated in order to develop appropriate physical education programs; psychomotor deficits should not be automatically assumed. Results of studies are confounded by factors such as communication techniques, selection of measuring instruments, and educational placement. Directions for future research are suggested.

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Jim Decker

This paper is in response to the article recently publishedin Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly entitled “Physical Education and Sport for the Deaf: Rethinking the Least Restrictive Environment” (Butterfield, 1991). Dr. Butterfield maintained that regular class placement of deaf students is inappropriate whereas such placements lack (a) cultural foundations unique to deaf individuals and essentials for their optimal development and (b) appropriate supportive services vital for the education of such students. In response, the present paper (a) delineates terminology frequently applied to individuals with hearing impairments and (b) maintains that failures of least restrictive environment placement are failures of implementation rather than of conception. Specifically, it is hypothesized taht lack of estabilished supportive services for students with hearing impairments may be traced, in part, to rejection of the least restrictive environment concept by such students and their parents/guardians. This paper contends that individuals with hearing impairments have much more to gain than to lose from increasing ties to the hearing world, particularly in educational settings.

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Chris Hopper

This pilot study examined self-concept and motor performance of hearing impaired boys and girls, ages 10 to 14. Subjects were 32 students from the Washington State School for the Deaf in Vancouver. Self-concept was measured using the Harter Self-Perception Profile consisting of six subscales: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic competence, physical appearance, behavioral conduct, and global self-worth. Motor performance was assessed with the 9-min run, sit-ups, sit and reach, Bass stick test, long jump, shuttle run, and catching a ball. Results of this pilot study indicated that students scored highest in the scholastic domain and lowest in the social acceptance domain. The physical appearance scale was most related to global self-worth. Those students who viewed themselves as athletically capable did best in the 9-min run. Girls scored higher than boys in athletic competence, physical appearance, and social acceptance domains.

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Stefania Korologou, Vassilis Barkoukis, Lambros Lazuras, and Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis

The current study used the transtheoretical model (TTM) as a guiding theoretical framework to assess differences in processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy among deaf individuals with different levels of physical activity. Overall, 146 participants (M age = 26.4 yr, SD = 4.28) completed anonymous questionnaires assessing the dimensions of the TTM, stages of change, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy. Analysis of variance showed that both experiential and behavioral processes of change were higher in the preparation, action, and maintenance stages than in the other stages. Accordingly, the benefits of physical activity participation were stronger in the preparation stage, whereas the costs were more evident in the precontemplation stage. Finally, self-efficacy at the preparation stage was higher than in the other stages. The findings revealed how different stages of physical activity participation can be explained through the TTM, and the implications for physical activity intervention are discussed.

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Karin Lobenius-Palmér, Birgitta Sjöqvist, Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf, and Lars-Olov Lundqvist

they cover only a few types of disabilities, one needs to be cautious in drawing any general conclusions regarding sedentary time. It is notable that youth with hearing impairment (HI), although a significant group, are lacking in the accelerometer literature. Factors other than type of disability

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Stephanie J. Hanrahan

This paper presents general considerations for working with athletes with disabilities and the usefulness and possible modification of specific mental skills for those athletes. Common concerns for athletes with specific disabilities are discussed. Specific disabilities are considered under the headings of amputees, blind and visually impaired, cerebral palsy, deaf and hearing impaired, intellectual disabilities, and wheelchair. Arousal control, goal setting, attention/concentration, body awareness, imagery, self-confidence, and precompetition preparation are discussed in terms of disability-specific issues as well as suggestions for application.

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Cindy H.P. Sit, Koenraad J. Lindner, and Claudine Sherrill

The purpose was to examine sport participation (excluding physical education classes) of school-aged Chinese children with disabilities attending special schools in Hong Kong. A sample of 237 children, ages 9 to 19, attending 10 special schools in Hong Kong, responded to a sport participation questionnaire in individual interviews. Data were analyzed by gender, two school levels, and five disability types. Results relating to participation frequency and extent indicated that girls were significantly less active than boys. Children with physical disability, visual impairment, and mental disability were less active than children with hearing impairment and maladjustment. Children with different types of disabilities varied in their participation patterns and choices of physical activities as well as their motives for sport participation, nonparticipation, and withdrawal. We concluded that disability type is more related to children’s participation behaviors in sport and physical activities than to gender and school level.

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Paul D. Loprinzi and Elizabeth Crush


No study has comprehensively examined the independent and combined effects of sensory impairment, physical activity and balance on mortality risk, which was this study’s purpose.


Data from the population-based 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used, with follow-up through 2011. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. Balance was assessed via the Romberg test. Peripheral neuropathy was assessed objectively using a standard monofilament. Visual impairment was objectively assessed using an autorefractor. Hearing impairment was assessed via self-report. A 5-level index variable (higher score is worse) was calculated based on the participant’s degree of sensory impairment, dysfunctional balance and physical inactivity.


Among the 1658 participants (age 40–85 yrs), 228 died during the median follow-up period of 92 months. Hearing (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.18; P = .40), vision (HR = 1.17; P = .58) and peripheral neuropathy (HR = 1.06; P = .71) were not independently associated with all-cause mortality, but physical activity (HR = 0.97; P = .01) and functional balance (HR = 0.59; P = .03) were. Compared with those with an index score of 0, the HR (95% CI) for those with an index score of 1 to 3, respectively, were 1.20 (0.46–3.13), 2.63 (1.08–6.40) and 2.88 (1.36–6.06).


Physical activity and functional balance are independent contributors to survival.

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Lijuan Wang

schools with peers without special needs ( Deng & Manset, 2000 ). The 1994 Regulations on Education for Persons with Special Needs ( State Council, 1994 ) mandated that schools should accept students with mild intellectual disability and visual and hearing impairments who live in their school districts